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News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

Safety, range and costs—these are the three big premises of electromobility. Safety definitely comes first. Lithium-based traction batteries are usually completely enclosed in the battery case and integrated in the vehicle to protect the battery from all conceivable stresses and external influences. This "armor" has an effect on construction, weight, size and overall design of the vehicle. "For the sake of safety, vehicle producers protect traction battery components usually more than is necessary, just to be on the safe side. As payback, however, there are certain restrictions. One reason for this practice is that too little research has been done into the behavior of battery components under crash conditions, such as battery cells," explains Wolfgang Sinz from the Institute of Vehicle Safety at TU Graz. Current research restricts itself mostly to the behavior of new vehicle traction batteries, without for example taking into account the possible influence of previous stress, such as ageing. And this is the point at which the team led by Wolfgang Sinz together with well-known national and international partners from research and industry takes up its work in the COMET project "SafeBattery," which moved on in April 2017. In the four-year research project funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, the focus is on the mechanical, electrochemical, chemical and thermodynamic behavior of single cells and single modules on a lithium basis under crash loads. In the course of this, the researchers will investigate components with different histories, since "safety should be ensured not just of new batteries, but also of traction batteries in vehicles which have a certain amount of vibration, possible minor mechanical shortcomings due to small accidents and calendrical ageing behind them," says Sinz. Other factors influencing battery behavior in crash cases will be examined carefully, such as charging status and temperature. The SafeBattery team wants to sound out the limits of battery cells to subsequently define parameters which can be used to ensure that these limits are never exceeded in practice. A lot of collaboration is needed, not only from industry partners such as AVL, Steyr Motors, Audi and Daimler, but also from within TU Graz in the form of experts from the Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials and the Virtual Vehicle competence center. "There is a lot of interdisciplinary crossover in this project. We have a huge range of influencing parameters and have to examine and break down the mosaic into its constituent parts. Only then can we make recommendations concerning construction, integration and operation of the batteries," says Sinz. The team has developed and built its own test rigs with tailor-made measuring and sensor technology for a variety of crash scenarios for batteries and their components in the Institute's own crash test hall. "A unique experimental setup which can yield high-quality measuring data and findings from among the entire, highly complex procedures which usually only take milliseconds to complete," says Sinz. On top of this come numerical calculation methods and simulations to help better understand the multi-physical processes involved. This should result in a comprehensive knowledge of the behavior of traction batteries under crash loads in order to better integrate them in relevant vehicle concepts. This knowledge can be used to recognize early on critical states in batteries during development and in operation and to avoid them through specific measures. Furthermore, cell manufacturers are interested in precise requirement specifications. "Using the results obtained, we want to contribute to achieving more leeway in range and vehicle design while always guaranteeing safety," summarizes Sinz. Another focus of the project is that, together with the Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Materials, not only state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries with liquid electrolytes will be investigated, but also next-generation lithium batteries with all solid state electrolytes. "What interests us here is whether the coming generation of drive batteries simply no longer has the failings of the current systems or whether they'll have new or different vulnerabilities," says Sinz.


News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

Safety, range and costs—these are the three big premises of electromobility. Safety definitely comes first. Lithium-based traction batteries are usually completely enclosed in the battery case and integrated in the vehicle to protect the battery from all conceivable stresses and external influences. This "armor" has an effect on construction, weight, size and overall design of the vehicle. "For the sake of safety, vehicle producers protect traction battery components usually more than is necessary, just to be on the safe side. As payback, however, there are certain restrictions. One reason for this practice is that too little research has been done into the behavior of battery components under crash conditions, such as battery cells," explains Wolfgang Sinz from the Institute of Vehicle Safety at TU Graz. Current research restricts itself mostly to the behavior of new vehicle traction batteries, without for example taking into account the possible influence of previous stress, such as ageing. And this is the point at which the team led by Wolfgang Sinz together with well-known national and international partners from research and industry takes up its work in the COMET project "SafeBattery," which moved on in April 2017. In the four-year research project funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, the focus is on the mechanical, electrochemical, chemical and thermodynamic behavior of single cells and single modules on a lithium basis under crash loads. In the course of this, the researchers will investigate components with different histories, since "safety should be ensured not just of new batteries, but also of traction batteries in vehicles which have a certain amount of vibration, possible minor mechanical shortcomings due to small accidents and calendrical ageing behind them," says Sinz. Other factors influencing battery behavior in crash cases will be examined carefully, such as charging status and temperature. The SafeBattery team wants to sound out the limits of battery cells to subsequently define parameters which can be used to ensure that these limits are never exceeded in practice. A lot of collaboration is needed, not only from industry partners such as AVL, Steyr Motors, Audi and Daimler, but also from within TU Graz in the form of experts from the Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials and the Virtual Vehicle competence center. "There is a lot of interdisciplinary crossover in this project. We have a huge range of influencing parameters and have to examine and break down the mosaic into its constituent parts. Only then can we make recommendations concerning construction, integration and operation of the batteries," says Sinz. The team has developed and built its own test rigs with tailor-made measuring and sensor technology for a variety of crash scenarios for batteries and their components in the Institute's own crash test hall. "A unique experimental setup which can yield high-quality measuring data and findings from among the entire, highly complex procedures which usually only take milliseconds to complete," says Sinz. On top of this come numerical calculation methods and simulations to help better understand the multi-physical processes involved. This should result in a comprehensive knowledge of the behavior of traction batteries under crash loads in order to better integrate them in relevant vehicle concepts. This knowledge can be used to recognize early on critical states in batteries during development and in operation and to avoid them through specific measures. Furthermore, cell manufacturers are interested in precise requirement specifications. "Using the results obtained, we want to contribute to achieving more leeway in range and vehicle design while always guaranteeing safety," summarizes Sinz. Another focus of the project is that, together with the Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Materials, not only state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries with liquid electrolytes will be investigated, but also next-generation lithium batteries with all solid state electrolytes. "What interests us here is whether the coming generation of drive batteries simply no longer has the failings of the current systems or whether they'll have new or different vulnerabilities," says Sinz.


News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Safety, range and costs: these are the three big premises of electromobility. Safety definitely comes first. Lithium-based traction batteries are usually completely enclosed in the battery case and integrated in the vehicle to protect the battery from all conceivable stresses and external influences. This "armour" has an effect on construction, weight, size and overall design of the vehicle. "For the sake of safety, vehicle producers protect traction battery components usually more than is necessary, just to be on the safe side. As payback, however, there are certain restrictions. One reason for this practice is that too little research has been done into the behaviour of battery components under crash conditions, such as battery cells," explains Wolfgang Sinz from the Institute of Vehicle Safety at TU Graz. Current research restricts itself mostly to the behaviour of new vehicle traction batteries, without for example taking into account the possible influence of previous stress, such as ageing. And this is the point at which the team led by Wolfgang Sinz together with well-known national and international partners from research and industry takes up its work in the COMET project "SafeBattery", which moved on in April 2017. In the four-year research project funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, the focus is on the mechanical, electrochemical, chemical and thermodynamic behaviour of single cells and single modules on a lithium basis under crash loads. In the course of this, the researchers will investigate components with different histories, since "safety should be ensured not just of new batteries, but also of traction batteries in vehicles which have a certain amount of vibration, possible minor mechanical shortcomings due to small accidents and calendrical ageing behind them," says Wolfgang Sinz. Other factors influencing battery behaviour in crash cases will be examined carefully, such as charging status and temperature. The SafeBattery team wants to sound out the limits of battery cells to subsequently define parameters which can be used to ensure that these limits are never exceeded in practice. A lot of collaboration is needed, not only from industry partners such as AVL, Steyr Motors, Audi and Daimler, but also from within TU Graz in the form of experts from the Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials and the Virtual Vehicle competence centre. "There is a lot of interdisciplinary crossover in this project. We have a huge range of influencing parameters and have to examine and break down the mosaic into its constituent parts. Only then can we make recommendations concerning construction, integration and operation of the batteries," says Sinz. The team has developed and built its own test rigs with tailor-made measuring and sensor technology for a variety of crash scenarios for batteries and their components in the Institute's own crash test hall: "A unique experimental setup which can yield high-quality measuring data and findings from among the entire, highly complex procedures which usually only take milliseconds to complete," says Sinz. On top of this come numerical calculation methods and simulations to help better understand the multi-physical processes involved. This should result in a comprehensive knowledge of the behaviour of traction batteries under crash loads in order to better integrate them in relevant vehicle concepts. This knowledge can be used to recognise early on critical states in batteries during development and in operation and to avoid them through specific measures. Furthermore, cell manufacturers are interested in precise requirement specifications. "Using the results obtained, we want to contribute to achieving more leeway in range and vehicle design while always guaranteeing safety," summarises Sinz. Another focus of the project is that, together with the Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Materials, not only state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries with liquid electrolytes will be investigated, but also next-generation lithium batteries with all solid state electrolytes. "What interests us here is whether the coming generation of drive batteries simply no longer has the failings of the current systems or whether they'll have new or different vulnerabilities," says Wolfgang Sinz. The partners in the K-project "SafeBattery" of the COMET programme are AVL List GmbH, SFL technology GmbH, Kreisel Electric GmbH, Steyr Motors GmbH, Audi AG, Daimler AG and Porsche AG. From academia, the Virtual Vehicle competence centre and Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials are assisting the Institute of Vehicle Safety, as is TU Graz. The project period is four years and will have a total financial volume of six million euros.


News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: phys.org

"For the sake of safety, vehicle producers protect traction battery components usually more than is necessary, just to be on the safe side. As payback, however, there are certain restrictions. One reason for this practice is that too little research has been done into the behaviour of battery components under crash conditions, such as battery cells," explains Wolfgang Sinz from the Institute of Vehicle Safety at TU Graz. Current research restricts itself mostly to the behaviour of new vehicle traction batteries, without for example taking into account the possible influence of previous stress, such as ageing. And this is the point at which the team led by Wolfgang Sinz together with well-known national and international partners from research and industry takes up its work in the COMET project "SafeBattery", which moved on in April 2017. In the four-year research project funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, the focus is on the mechanical, electrochemical, chemical and thermodynamic behaviour of single cells and single modules on a lithium basis under crash loads. In the course of this, the researchers will investigate components with different histories, since "safety should be ensured not just of new batteries, but also of traction batteries in vehicles which have a certain amount of vibration, possible minor mechanical shortcomings due to small accidents and calendrical ageing behind them," says Wolfgang Sinz. Other factors influencing battery behaviour in crash cases will be examined carefully, such as charging status and temperature. The SafeBattery team wants to sound out the limits of battery cells to subsequently define parameters which can be used to ensure that these limits are never exceeded in practice. A lot of collaboration is needed, not only from industry partners such as AVL, Steyr Motors, Audi and Daimler, but also from within TU Graz in the form of experts from the Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials and the Virtual Vehicle competence centre. "There is a lot of interdisciplinary crossover in this project. We have a huge range of influencing parameters and have to examine and break down the mosaic into its constituent parts. Only then can we make recommendations concerning construction, integration and operation of the batteries," says Sinz. The team has developed and built its own test rigs with tailor-made measuring and sensor technology for a variety of crash scenarios for batteries and their components in the Institute's own crash test hall: "A unique experimental setup which can yield high-quality measuring data and findings from among the entire, highly complex procedures which usually only take milliseconds to complete," says Sinz. On top of this come numerical calculation methods and simulations to help better understand the multi-physical processes involved. This should result in a comprehensive knowledge of the behaviour of traction batteries under crash loads in order to better integrate them in relevant vehicle concepts. This knowledge can be used to recognise early on critical states in batteries during development and in operation and to avoid them through specific measures. Furthermore, cell manufacturers are interested in precise requirement specifications. "Using the results obtained, we want to contribute to achieving more leeway in range and vehicle design while always guaranteeing safety," summarises Sinz. Another focus of the project is that, together with the Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Materials, not only state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries with liquid electrolytes will be investigated, but also next-generation lithium batteries with all solid state electrolytes. "What interests us here is whether the coming generation of drive batteries simply no longer has the failings of the current systems or whether they'll have new or different vulnerabilities," says Wolfgang Sinz. Detail shot of a battery cell in the test rig. Credit: Lunghammer - TU Graz Explore further: Cathode material with high energy density for all-solid lithium-ion batteries


Felbinger H.,Virtual Vehicle | Wotawa F.,Graz University of Technology | Nica M.,AVL List GmbH
Proceedings - 11th International Workshop on Automation of Software Test, AST 2016 | Year: 2016

In this paper we investigate a method for test suite evaluation that is based on an inferred model from the test suite. The idea is to use the similarity between the inferred model and the system under test as a measure of test suite adequacy, which is the ability of a test suite to expose errors in the system under test. We define similarity using the root mean squared error computed from the differences of the system under test output and the model output for certain inputs not used for model inference. In the paper we introduce the approach and provide results of an experimental evaluation where we compare the similarity with the mutation score. We used the Pearson Correlation coefficient to calculate whether a linear correlation between mutation score and root mean squared error exists. As a result we obtain that in certain cases the computed similarity strongly correlates with the mutation score. © 2016 ACM.


Kitanoski F.,Virtual Vehicle | Hofer A.,University of Graz
IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline) | Year: 2010

Hybrid electric vehicles are regarded as a possible solution for the reduction of pollutant emissions and for improving the fuel economy. Besides the conventional cooling circuit for the engine, hybrid vehicles need cooling for the electrical drives and for the energy storage systems as well. The development of appropriate cooling systems has the consequence that the number of auxiliary components involved, the weight and above all the energy consumption is increased. Therefore in order to minimize the energy consumption an optimal strategy for the operation of the cooling aggregates is required. In this paper an approach for finding the optimal control strategy of the electric auxiliaries over an apriori defined driving cycle is introduced. An energy minimization problem with constraints given by the maximum allowed temperature of the components is stated. This problem is based on a nonlinear mathematical model of the cooling system. It is shown how the nonlinear continuous time model can be equivalently replaced by a suitable linear discrete time model where some of the variables are confined to take integer values. This allows us to cast the optimization problem as a mixed integer linear program. The proposed approach is demonstrated by an example. For this purpose a cooling system is considered where an electrically driven water pump and an electric cooling fan are involved. As a result the optimal interaction of the water pump and the fan is computed such that the energy consumption of these components is minimized subject to given temperature constraints. © 2010 IFAC.


Schwarzl C.,Virtual Vehicle | Peischl B.,University of Graz
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2010

UML state chart models describing the behavior of a system can be used as a formal specification thereof. The existence of advanced modeling tools allows for model simulation and enables the execution of manually created tests on the models. In this work the usage of static and dynamic model analysis techniques is proposed to reveal errors in these models. The static analysis focuses on the syntax, communication structure and non-determinism. The dynamic analysis is based on a random test approach and can reveal bugs like deadlocks and inter-model loops. Further the data generated during the dynamic analysis allows for additional correctness checks such as e.g. the number or lengths of paths. The presented approach is implemented in a prototype and revealed several bugs in an industrial case study not found during simulation and manual model testing. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Polzlbauer F.,Virtual Vehicle | Bate I.,University of York | Brenner E.,University of Graz
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters | Year: 2012

During system synthesis (i.e., task allocation) the transmission of messages between tasks is usually addressed in a simplistic way. If a message is exchanged via an external bus, it is assumed each message is packed in an individual frame. This assumption leads to an overestimation of bus bandwidth demand and frame response time. For some systems (i.e., automotive), this pessimism is not acceptable and therefore frame packing is often performed where multiple messages are packed into a single frame. In this paper, an improved frame packing approach is provided. © 2009-2012 IEEE.


Kitting D.,Virtual Vehicle | Ofenheimer A.,Virtual Vehicle | Pauli H.,Voestalpine AG | Till E.T.,Voestalpine AG
International Journal of Material Forming | Year: 2010

In sheet forming, stretch-bending deformation, (i.e. combined deformation of simultaneous stretching and bending when sheet material is stretched over a defined tool radius), is known to enhance material formability. In order to use this forming potential of sheet material, current research put its emphasis on the experimental characterization of the formability of sheet material, subjected to stretch-bending deformation and on a more reliable formability prediction in complex shaped parts. Nevertheless, significant limitations exist in the current available experimental setups for the characterization of the stretch-bending formability of sheet material. Furthermore, the predictive quality of existing formability prediction models is not sufficient to meet current industrial requirements. In this work results of an experimental characterization of influences on stretch-bending formability using existing and newly developed stretch-bending test setups are presented and a phenomenological concept that uses the experimental results to predict formability in Finite-Element simulations of complex shaped parts involving stretch-bending deformation is proposed. © 2010 Springer-Verlag France.


Stocker A.,Virtual Vehicle | Muller J.,Siemens AG
Journal of Systems and Information Technology | Year: 2016

Purpose: To measure the success of corporate social software (CSS), interviews, surveys, content and usage data analysis have been commonly used in practice. While interviews and surveys are only capable of making perceived use and benefits transparent, usage data analysis reveals many objective facts but does not allow insights into potential user-benefits. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to link both perspectives to advance CSS success measuring. Design/methodology/approach: The research case is References+, a Corporate Social Software developed at Siemens to facilitate worldwide sharing of knowledge, experiences, and best practices since 2005. References+ currently has around 15,000 registered members located in more than 80 countries. This paper evaluates results from a user survey with nearly 1,500 responding employees and links all survey results to the corresponding participant’s data on platform use to generate additional insights. Findings: The paper generates findings on how CSS is used in practice and how it is perceived by employees of a large-scale enterprise. Furthermore, it explores how a combination of subjective and objective evaluation methods can be applied to advance the state-of-the-art in measuring use and benefits. By linking CSS usage data to corresponding survey data, the paper provides results on what type of use of CSS may create what type of benefit. Practical implications: This study encourages practitioners to take advantage of a variety of instruments for measuring the benefits of CSS. It generates numerous arguments for practitioners on how to make the benefit of CSS more transparent to financial-oriented decision-makers to successfully defend knowledge management projects against shrinking IT budgets. Originality/value: This paper is one of the first attempts to explore the relationship between “perceived use” and “perceived benefits” measured by surveys and “factual use” measured by CSS usage statistics for knowledge management research. The findings of this paper may empower the role of user surveys in generating additional insights on use and benefits. © 2016, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

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