A virtual world or massively multiplayer online world is a computer-based simulated environment. The term has become largely synonymous with interactive 3D virtual environments, where the users take the form of avatars visible to others. These avatars can be textual, two or three-dimensional graphical representations, or live video avatars with auditory and touch sensations. In general, virtual worlds allow for multiple users.The user accesses a computer-simulated world which presents perceptual stimuli to the user, who in turn can manipulate elements of the modeled world and thus experience a degree of telepresence. Such modeled worlds and their rules may draw from the reality or fantasy worlds. Example rules are gravity, topography, locomotion, real-time actions, and communication. Communication between users can range from text, graphical icons, visual gesture, sound, and rarely, forms using touch, voice command, and balance senses.Massively multiplayer online games depict a wide range of worlds, including those based on science fiction, the real world, super heroes, sports, horror, and historical milieus. The most common form of such games are fantasy worlds, whereas those based on the real world are relatively rare. Most MMORPGs have real-time actions and communication. Players create a character who travels between buildings, towns, and worlds to carry out business or leisure activities. Communication is usually textual, but real-time voice communication is also possible. The form of communication used can substantially affect the experience of players in the game.Virtual worlds are not limited to games but, depending on the degree of immediacy presented, can encompass computer conferencing and text based chatrooms. Sometimes, emoticons or 'smilies' are available to show feeling or facial expression. Emoticons often have a keyboard shortcut. Edward Castronova is an economist who has argued that "synthetic worlds" is a better term for these cyberspaces, but this term has not been widely adopted. Wikipedia.
Christ O.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland |
Reiner M.,Virtual City
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2014
This review introduces theoretical aspects of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) and virtual hand illusion (VHI), and discusses their possible clinical applications. It also presents technical improvements regarding the realization of the RHI and VHI and their relation to rehabilitation issues. There is presently little evidence describing the value of the RHI and VHI as indices in the diagnosis or treatment of different pathologies, likely because of a lack of standardization in reporting the results of RHI and VHI studies. In contrast, a new emerging "out-of-body illusion" appears to be an interesting new approach; however, as in RHI and VHI, there are additional consequences regarding its application in clinical settings because of its technological demands. This review considers the acceptance of technology and the realization of immersion/presence in the context of virtual rehabilitation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Schulze F.,Virtual City |
Schulze F.,Industrial Materials Institute of Canada |
Buhler K.,Virtual City |
Neubauer A.,Industrial Materials Institute of Canada |
And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery | Year: 2010
Purpose: Virtual endoscopy has already proven its benefit for pre-operative planning of endoscopic pituitary surgery. The translation of such a system into the operating room is a logical consequence, but only a few general intra-operative image guided systems providing virtual endoscopic images have been proposed so far. A discussion of related visualization and interaction problems occurring during sinus and pituitary surgery is still missing. Methods: This paper aims at filling this gap and proposes a system that integrates an existing virtual endoscopy system originally designed for pre-operative planning of pituitary surgery with a professional intra-operative navigation system. Visualization and interaction possibilities of the pre-operative planning system have been extended to fulfill the special requirements to the system if used for intra-operative navigation of endonasal transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Results: The feasibility of the system has been successfully tested on 1 cadaver and 12 patients. The virtual endoscopic images were found useful (1) during the endonasal transsphenoidal approach in cases of anatomic variations and for the individually tailored opening of the sellar floor, and (2) during tumor resection for respecting the internal carotid artery. The visualization of hidden anatomical structures behind the bony walls of the sphenoid sinus during the sellar phase of the surgery has been found most beneficial. Discussion: According to our data, intra-operative virtual endoscopy provides additional anatomical information to the surgeon. By depicting individual anatomical variations in advance, it may add to the safety of this frequent neurosurgical procedure. © 2009 CARS.
PubMed | Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, University of Cambridge, Virtual City and Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current biology : CB | Year: 2016
Identifying distinct anatomical structures within the brain and developing genetic tools to target them are fundamental steps for understanding brain function. We hypothesize that enhancer expression patterns can be used to automatically identify functional units such as neuropils and fiber tracts. We used two recent, genome-scale Drosophila GAL4 libraries and associated confocal image datasets to segment large brain regions into smaller subvolumes. Our results (available at https://strawlab.org/braincode) support this hypothesis because regions with well-known anatomy, namely the antennal lobes and central complex, were automatically segmented into familiar compartments. The basis for the structural assignment is clustering of voxels based on patterns of enhancer expression. These initial clusters are agglomerated to make hierarchical predictions of structure. We applied the algorithm to central brain regions receiving input from the optic lobes. Based on the automated segmentation and manual validation, we can identify and provide promising driver lines for 11 previously identified and 14 novel types of visual projection neurons and their associated optic glomeruli. The same strategy can be used in other brain regions and likely other species, including vertebrates.
Hafiz D.A.,Virtual City |
Sheta W.M.,Virtual City |
Bayoumi S.,Institute of Graduate Studies and Research |
Youssef B.A.B.,Virtual City
Journal of Computer Science | Year: 2011
Problem statement: Segmentation of 3D range images is widely used in computer vision as an essential pre-processing step before the methods of high-level vision can be applied. Segmentation aims to study and recognize the features of range image such as 3D edges, connected surfaces and smooth regions. Approach: This study presents new improvements in segmentation of terrestrial 3D range images based on edge detection technique. The main idea is to apply a gradient edge detector in three different directions of the 3D range images. This 3D gradient detector is a generalization of the classical sobel operator used with 2D images, which is based on the differences of normal vectors or geometric locations in the coordinate directions. The proposed algorithm uses a 3D-grid structure method to handle large amount of unordered sets of points and determine neighborhood points. It segments the 3D range images directly using gradient edge detectors without any further computations like mesh generation. Our algorithm focuses on extracting important linear structures such as doors, stairs and windows from terrestrial 3D range images these structures are common in indoors and outdoors in many environments. Results: Experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm provides a new approach of 3D range image segmentation with the characteristics of low computational complexity and less sensitivity to noise. The algorithm is validated using seven artificially generated datasets and two real world datasets. Conclusion/Recommendations: Experimental results showed that different segmentation accuracy is achieved by using higher Grid resolution and adaptive threshold. © 2011 Science Publications.
Clark L.D.,City University of New York |
Clark L.D.,Virtual City |
Clark L.D.,The College of Saint Rose
Campus-Wide Information Systems | Year: 2012
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to plan a relevant, professional development conference for the faculty of a small, private, suburban college in upstate, New York. The Provost and Senior Vice-President led a college-wide committee of faculty, administrators, and staff in a survey method to discover the priorities of the faculty, in further development of excellence in teaching and learning. Design/methodology/approach: The committee designed 20 essential questions, and asked faculty to select three questions, in order of priority, to be used to guide the theme of the conference. Faculty members were also given the option to write their own question, if their choices were not reflected in the original list. Of the 207 full-time faculty members, 155 responded to the survey within a two-week period. Findings: Of the 155 survey respondents, 22 selected question 11, "In what ways do we weigh the political, ethical and economic implications of technological platforms against their pedagogical potential, and how can we model these kinds of complex decisions for our students?", as one of three choices. Social implications: In this second decade of the twenty-first century, there is a strong sense of urgency to examine and revise current public policy, so that society may connect with the realities of the present. Originality/value: The paper addresses those needed changes in greater depth, and provides a framework for exploring issues of ethics, and the dilemmas faced by educators in the twenty-first century, with regard to teaching and learning in higher education. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Knecht M.,Vienna University of Technology |
Traxler C.,Virtual City |
Mattausch O.,Vienna University of Technology |
Mattausch O.,University of Zürich |
Wimmer M.,Vienna University of Technology
Computers and Graphics (Pergamon) | Year: 2012
In this paper we present a novel plausible rendering method for mixed reality systems, which is useful for many real-life application scenarios, like architecture, product visualization or edutainment. To allow virtual objects to seamlessly blend into the real environment, the real lighting conditions and the mutual illumination effects between real and virtual objects must be considered, while maintaining interactive frame rates. The most important such effects are indirect illumination and shadows cast between real and virtual objects. Our approach combines Instant Radiosity and Differential Rendering. In contrast to some previous solutions, we only need to render the scene once in order to find the mutual effects of virtual and real scenes. In addition, we avoid artifacts like double shadows or inconsistent color bleeding which appear in previous work. The dynamic real illumination is derived from the image stream of a fish-eye lens camera. The scene gets illuminated by virtual point lights, which use imperfect shadow maps to calculate visibility. A sufficiently fast scene reconstruction is done at run-time with Microsofts Kinect sensor. Thus, a time-consuming manual pre-modeling step of the real scene is not necessary. Our results show that the presented method highly improves the illusion in mixed-reality applications and significantly diminishes the artificial look of virtual objects superimposed onto real scenes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Hladuvka J.K.,Virtual City |
Major D.,Virtual City |
Buhler K.,Virtual City
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science | Year: 2015
Algorithms centered around spinal columns in CT data such as spinal canal detection, disk and vertebra localization and segmentation are known to be computationally intensive and memory demanding. The majority of these algorithms need initialization and try to reduce the search space to a minimum. In this work we introduce bone profiles as a simple means to compute a tight ROI containing the spine and seed points within the spinal canal. Bone profiles rely on the distribution of bone intensity values in axial slices. They are easy to understand, and parameters guiding the ROI and seed point detection are straight forward to derive. The method has been validated with two datasets containing 52 general and 242 spine-focused CT scans. Average runtimes of 1.5 and 0.4 s are reported on a single core. Due to its slice-wise nature, the method can be easily parallelized and fractions of the reported runtimes can be further achieved. Our memory requirements are upper bounded by a single CT slice. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.
Major D.,Virtual City |
Hladuvka J.,Virtual City |
Schulze F.,Virtual City |
Buhler K.,Virtual City
Medical Image Analysis | Year: 2013
The spinal column is one of the most distinguishable structures in CT scans of the superior part of the human body. It is not necessary to segment the spinal column in order to use it as a frame of reference. It is sufficient to place landmarks and the appropriate anatomical labels at intervertebral disks and vertebrae.In this paper, we present an automated system for landmarking and labeling spinal columns in 3D CT datasets. We designed this framework with two goals in mind. First, we relaxed input data requirements found in the literature, and we label both full and partial spine scans. Secondly, we intended to fulfill the performance requirement for daily clinical use and developed a high throughput system capable of processing thousands of slices in just a few minutes. To accomplish the aforementioned goals, we encoded structural knowledge from training data in probabilistic boosting trees and used it to detect efficiently the spinal canal, intervertebral disks, and three reference regions responsible for initializing the landmarking and labeling. Final landmarks and labels are selected by Markov Random Field-based matches of newly introduced 3-disk models.The framework has been tested on 36 CT images having at least one of the regions around the thoracic first ribs, the thoracic twelfth ribs, or the sacrum. In an average time of 2. min, we achieved a correct labeling in 35 cases with precision of 99.0% and recall of 97.2%. Additionally, we present results assuming none of the three reference regions could be detected. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
News Article | August 26, 2015
Paid iPhone and iPad apps on sale for free are a dime a dozen, but weeding through all the iOS apps that go on sale each day is a huge pain. Of course, that’s where we come in. BGR scours the App Store for the best app sales each day, and today we’ve come up with a solid list of eight paid iPhone and iPad apps that are all on sale for free right now. Of course, if eight aren’t enough, you can always head back to yesterday’s post where you’ll find a few more apps that are still on sale. These are paid iPhone and iPad apps that have been made available for free for a limited time by their developers. There is no way to tell how long they will be free. These sales could end an hour from now or a week from now — obviously, the only thing we can guarantee is that they were free at the time this post was written. If you click on a link and see a price listed next to an app instead of the word “get,” it is no longer free. The sale has ended. If you download the app, you will be charged. Want to know how far you are from the South Pole? Want to plan your next vacation and determine what places you want to visit and the distance between them? Or are you simply interested in the distance between two or more cities? This app will guide you in the right direction. PinPoints helps you quickly and easily measure the distances between countless points of your choosing. You can calculate your chosen routes as an air route or a car route. The app is the perfect navigation aid that can be of great use both privately and for purposes of business. Features: ▸ Choose among 3 different position determinants ▹ Current location ▹ Choose on the map ▹ Address ▸ Save offline ▸ Illustrated air route/car route on the map ▸ Calculation of any number of points ▸ Saving of all previously calculated routes, sorted chronologically ▸ Information in kilometers or miles, depending on location ▸ Easy to use ▸ Easy and clear menu Illustrated air route/car route on the map Enter the desired locations and the air route or car route will immediately be shown on the map. Calculation of any number of points No matter how many points you choose, PinPoints will calculate each individual distance for you. You can always access previously calculated routes and modify them as needed. A helpful app, and not just for pilots. AllPass is an app that keeps all your vital information in one secure vault. • Quick opening of data using Touch ID • Store your logins, credit cards, identities, and secure notes • Log in to websites without having to remember any of your passwords • Fill credit cards and identities without typing • Quickly access your most used items using Favorites and History • Fast search to find what you need • Support Folders for better file organization.You can select a template for any folder to create records as fast as possible • Unlimited number of databases • Encrypts all your data using best and most reliable AES 256-bit encryption • All protection mechanism is offline on your device only • Auto-lock protects your vault even if your device is lost or stolen • Syncs securely with your other iOS devices • Backup & Restore your data via iCloud, Mail or iTunes • Export and import via Mail, iTunes and CSV text files • 180 icons to personalize your records • 5 standard templates for fast data entry with the ability to create or edit custom templates with unlimited fields • Integration with iOS • Optimized for all types of devices and screen resolutions Choose the AllPass for storing important information and your digital life will become more comfortable and safe. LONG-AWAITED SEQUEL TO VIRTUAL CITY IS FINALLY HERE! New buildings, new product chains, new challenges! After winning the hearts of millions of players, the best-selling city builder game, Virtual City, gets its long-awaited sequel! In Virtual City 2: Paradise Resort, you’ll get to expand your activities to the shining coast of Florida, snowy lands of Alaska, rocky mountains of Utah and arid tundras of Nevada. Complete 4 challenging locations with unique missions while fulfilling special goals like launching a Casino, building a Ski Resort and constructing an Ice Hotel. Offices and hotels, restaurants and clubs, museums and fitness centers – access the widest selection of buildings to make your very own Virtual City unique and prosperous. ● 52 Challenging Levels in 4 Settings: Blustery Utah, Sunny Florida, Snowy Alaska, Steamy Nevada ● 29 Distinct Mission Scenarios ● 73 Types of Buildings ● 42 Types of Goods to Transport and Trade ● 12 Production Chains to Master ● 98 Special Achievements to Earn ● 45 Upgrades and Buildings to Unlock ● Game Center Support ● iPhone 6+ Display support • Now you can import text or cvs files containing phone calls into this app. • For more information visit the website mentioned above or tap on the ‘Developer’s website’ button or from the app’s help section. • This app keeps those casual phone calls for you, when you make phone calls using this app, or import call from a file. • When you make your phone calls using this app It automatically opens at the end of phone call and the phone call is saved to this app. • • calLog is multiple apps in one. • • Some of common uses : • Find out your phone calls time usage. • Add detail information to your phone calls. • Get a backup copy of your phone calls. • Ideal when shopping around by phone. • Keep track of leads for sales persons. • Personal organizer app. • Reminder app connected to device calendar. • Global address finder app. • Location manager and notifier app. • Contacts manager connected to map, calendar. • Phone customer service counter. √ Keep your casual phone calls with no limit in number of calls, for ever. √ Easily copy call informations from your device phone program into this app. • In your device phone program go to a call detail screen and hold down your finger on the phone number until the copy button shows up. √ Find how long did you talk for a specific date period. √ Add name, note and address to casual phone calls. √ Add reminders to phone calls integrated with your device calendar. √ Your contact list won’t be full of names you don’t even remember. √ History Function : • Instantly see previous phone call details for a phone number by one tap from the call detail screen. √ Instant search, finds as you type. • Search phone calls by name, part of phone number or words in notes. √ Export phone calls in CSV format, plain text or send them to you calendar. • Import the CSV files into spread sheets and get all kinds of reports ( Excel ). • Use the exported files as backups. • You can send out your phone calls by email. • Export function is available from Report screen √ Integrated with your device calendar and contacts. • Put all your contacts having address, together on the map. √ Location reminder • Get notified when passing by your specific locations. √ Flag locations to remember as a to do task. • Set correct address format, from options menu. √ Built in web browser. • Open your online notes or documents from inside the app. √ Reporting Functions : • You can search a phone number based on : Specific date or time and find out duration and number of calls you made, with some additional useful filters. • This application is not able to make calls with # or * in the phone number. Hatchi is a retro-looking iPhone and watch app sure to get the nostalgia burning for all those who cared for a virtual pet back in the 1990s when they were at the height of their popularity. Just as with the keychain-sized pets of the 90s, iPhone, iPod and iPad users now will feed, clean, play with and generally look after their pets to ensure they grow up to be healthy, happy little Hatchis. He needs YOU! *** Featured on Touch Arcade Best iPhone and iPad Games*** Your Hatchi monster will go through several stages of growth, and will look different depending on the type of care the player provides. There are also NEW EGGS you can get which give you all new types of Hatchi! Customise your Hatchi!! You can: * Choose different backgrounds like the park or the beach! * Use stickers to customise the background to give Hatchi a better environment! * Change the color of your Hatchi’s pixels! How will YOU customise your Hatchi? Play mini games!! including: * The Hatchi Matchi memory game * Hatchi Squares – play against your Hatchi! * Roshambo – What Hatchi will you pick? * Hatchi Catchi – move your Hatchi to catch falling food * Its raining meds – avoid the meds! * Whack a Hatchi – whack as many as you can! and now our ALL NEW MULTIPLAYER BATTLING GAME!! Play Hatchi Battle with your Game Center friends and see who wins! Feed, clean, play and watch it evolve over several days. Speed PRO+ is a Universal GPS-based speedometer with Saved Routes and many other features. MAIN FEATURES: – GPS & Activity Tracking (Step Count, Stairs Ascended, Stairs Descended) – Track Database: iCloud or local – Track Editing: Trim off the unwanted portions in your saved tracks – ‘Background Updates’ location option allows your app to execute in the background – Full-screen display of your Speed, Average Speed, Top Speed, Distance, Route Time, Altitude and Course – Pause/Resume tracking by tapping Speedometer – Auto Pause/Resume option keeps the app paused when you’re stopped – Auto Pause At option allows you to control the speed at which the app auto pauses&resumes – Orientation Lock option – Option to remove the fractions from the displayed speed – Reset Confirmations option [Turn On if you want a confirmation sheet when you tap ‘Reset’] – Navigate back to the camera with a Left or Right swipe – Share Map&Speedometer snapshots on Facebook, Twitter, VK, Dropbox, Sina Weibo or via In-App Mail – Share Current Route KML via In-App Mail, VK or Dropbox – Altitude source option [“Device”, “MapQuest”, “USGS”] – Portrait and Landscape orientation support – Camera Background option: Turn on to show a live feed of your camera in the speedometer background – Mirroring option for HUD on windshield – Units option [“Miles”, “Km”]; – GPS Accuracy option – ‘Background Updates’ location option allows your app to execute in the background – Built-in Color Themes – Custom Theme lets you choose your speedometer colors with a color picker CAMERA FEATURES: – Take a Photo by Single Tapping anywhere – Start/Stop Recording by Double Tapping anywhere – Set Focus by Pressing&Holding 1 finger on desired point – Set Exposure by Pressing&Holding 2 fingers on desired point – Navigate back to the speedometer with a Left or Right swipe – Your videos and photos are saved to your Saved Photos Album – EXIF [Camera+Timestamp+GPS] What’s the difference between Speed PRO and Speed PRO +?