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Andernach I.E.,Institute of Immunology | Andernach I.E.,Robert Koch Institute | Leiss L.V.,Institute of Immunology | Tarnagda Z.S.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2014

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a satellite of hepatitis B virus (HBV), and infection with this virus aggravates acute and chronic liver disease. While HBV seroprevalence is very high across sub-Saharan Africa, much less is known about HDV in the region. In this study, almost 2,300 blood serum samples from Burkina Faso (n = 1,131), Nigeria (n = 974), Chad (n = 50), and the Central African Republic (n = 118) were screened for HBV and HDV. Among 743 HBsAg-positive serum samples, 74 were positive for HDV antibodies and/or HDV RNA, with considerable differences in prevalence, ranging from < 2% (pregnant women from Burkina Faso) to 50% (liver patients from Central African Republic). HDV seems to be much more common in chronic liver disease patients in the Central African Republic (CAR) than in similar cohorts in Nigeria. In a large nested mother-child cohort in Burkina Faso, the prevalence of HDV antibodies was 10 times higher in the children than in their mothers, despite similar HBsAg prevalences, excluding vertical transmission as an important route of infection. The genotyping of 16 full-length and 8 partial HDV strains revealed clade 1 (17/24) in three of the four countries, while clades 5 (5/24) and 6 (2/24) were, at least in this study, confined to Central Nigeria. On the amino acid level, almost all our clade 1 strains exhibited a serine at position 202 in the hepatitis D antigen, supporting the hypothesis of an ancient African HDV-1 subgroup. Further studies are required to understand the public health significance of the highly varied HDV prevalences in different cohorts and countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Forbi J.C.,Virology Research Laboratory | Gabadi S.,Virology Research Laboratory | Iperepolu H.O.,Virology Research Laboratory | Esona M.D.,Virology Research Laboratory | Agwale S.M.,Virology Research Laboratory
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Year: 2010

Background: Viral load (VL) quantification is considered an integral part of the standard care in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals but in Nigeria as in most of sub-Saharan Africa, this has not reached the majority of patients. Methods: We report the first field application of the NucliSens EasyQ HIV-1 platform for the real time quantification of HIV-1 VL combining NASBA amplification and real time detection with molecular beacons among HIV-1 infected individuals in north central Nigeria where the predominant HIV-1 subtypes are CRF02-AG and G CD4+ counts were enumerated using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter system. Results: Of one hundred and forty nine (n=149) plasma sample from patients with mean age of 32 years and made up of 77 males and 72 females, fifty {n = 50 (37.9%); 28 males and 22 females}had VLs below the lower detection limit (LDL=25 IU/ml) set by the assay while eighty- two {n = 82 (62.1%); 39 males and 43 females}had VL levels above the LDL. Furthermore, 13 of 82 (15.9%) patients with viral loads above the LDL had VLs between 26-1000 IU/ml while 69 (84.1%) had VLs of 1001-2400000 IU/ml. 17 (11.4%) ofthe samples could not be analyzed due to poor viral amplification. Among individuals with both CD4+ and VL results (n=56), those with CD4+ of 1-418 cell/pl presented with higher VL usually above 45,000 IU/ml when compared with those with CD4+ of over 500 cell/pl. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the pattern, usefulness and feasibility of VL quantification by NucliSens EasyQ in monitoring HIV-1 patients in Nigeria.


PubMed | Virology Research Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nigerian journal of clinical practice | Year: 2010

Viral load (VL) quantification is considered an integral part of the standard care in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals but in Nigeria as in most of sub-Saharan Africa, this has not reached the majority ofpatients.We report the first field application of the NucliSens EasyQ HIV-1 platform for the real time quantification of HIV-1 VL combining NASBA amplification and real time detection with molecular beacons among HIV-1 infected individuals in north central Nigeria where the predominant HIV-1 subtypes are CRF02_AG and G. CD4+ counts were enumerated using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter system.Of one hundred and forty nine (n=149) plasma sample from patients with mean age of 32 years and made up of 77 males and 72 females, fifty {n=50 (37.9%); 28 males and 22 females} had VLs below the lower detection limit (LDL=25 IU/ml) set by the assay while eighty-two {n=82 (62.1%); 39 males and 43 females} had VL levels above the LDL. Furthermore, 13 of 82 (15.9%) patients with viral loads above the LDL had VLs between 26-1000 IU/ml while 69 (84.1%) had VLs of 1001-2,400,000 IU/ml. 17 (11.4%) of the samples could not be analyzed due to poor viral amplification. Among individuals with both CD4+ and VL results (n=56), those with CD4+ of 1-418 cell/microl presented with higher VL usually above 45,000 IU/ml when compared with those with CD4+ of over 500 cell/microl.Our findings highlight the pattern, usefulness and feasibility ofVL quantification by NucliSens EasyQ in monitoring HIV-1 patients in Nigeria.

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