Martinelle L.,Research Unit of Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Applied to the Veterinary science UREAR |
Dal Pozzo F.,Virology and Viral Diseases |
Sarradin P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
De Leeuw I.,Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Center |
And 5 more authors.
The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences in calves of two forms of inocula alternative to the use of wild type infectious blood. Two groups of five calves were infected with low cell-passaged virus and infectious blood issued from one animal passage of the same strain. A longitudinal study was implemented and characterised by clinical standardised observations, haematology, BTV RNA detection and viral isolation from blood, detection of serogroup and neutralising antibodies, cytokine expression and post-mortem examination 46 days post-infection (PI). Both tested inocula were able to reproduce clinical expression of the disease, in the bloodstream viral genome was detected until the end of the experiment while virus isolation was possible between days 7 and 31 PI. Humoral immune response developed earlier in calves infected with low cell-passaged virus, while in both groups a massive antibody production was confirmed by the immune balance between IL-4 and IFN-γ expression. Both tested inocula are presented as valid alternative to the use of wild type infectious blood in the study of the pathogenesis of BTV-8 or the efficacy of current and future vaccines. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Del Medico Zajac M.P.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria |
Ladelfa M.F.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria |
Ladelfa M.F.,CONICET |
Kotsias F.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria |
And 6 more authors.
Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) is an alphaherpesvirus responsible for meningoencephalitis in young cattle and is closely antigenically and genetically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Both viruses have common aspects in their pathogenesis: (1) they infect epithelial cells at the portal of entry and (2) they establish a latent infection in the sensory nerve ganglia, i.e., the trigeminal ganglia. However, they have different neuroinvasion and neurovirulence capacities. Only in rare cases can BoHV-1 reach the brain of infected cattle. BoHV-5 infection induces different degrees of severity of neurological disease depending on both viral and host factors. Although a case of BoHV-5 associated disease in Europe and some outbreaks in USA and Australia have been reported, the current geographical distribution of BoHV-5 infection is mainly restricted to South America, especially Brazil and Argentina. This review focuses on the genomic characteristics, pathobiology and epidemiology of BoHV-5, in order to provide information on the possible basis of alphaherpesvirus neuropathogenesis. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source