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Trombino S.,University of Calabria | Poerio T.,CNR Institute on Membrane Technology | Ferrarelli T.,University of Calabria | Mauro M.V.,Virology and Microbiology Service of Annunziata Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Polymer International | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to synthesize new multifunctional biopolymers via esterification of hemp fibres with two reagents: meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The obtained biopolymers were characterized using infrared spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity of the derivative containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid moiety was evaluated by assessing the growth inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Petri dishes. The results suggest that this biomaterial exhibits an excellent in vitro antibacterial activity. The antioxidant activity of the biopolymer from meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid was tested in rat liver microsomal membranes in the presence of tert-butylhydroperoxide as free radical source. Results suggest that this material inhibits lipid peroxidation induced by the free radical species. Both derivatives were used to prepare multifunctional membranes that were characterized and tested indicating the maintenance of biopolymer functionalized properties. Moreover, these functionalized biopolymers interact with metal ions due to their chelating functional groups. The absorption capacity for a selected metal ion, Cd(II), was investigated in aqueous solutions at pH = 0.65, 4.1 and 7.0 using optical emission spectroscopy. This study demonstrates that these new materials are very effective in chelating cadmium ions showing maximum efficiency at pH = 7.0. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.


Cassano R.,University of Calabria | Trombino S.,University of Calabria | Ferrarelli T.,University of Calabria | Cavalcanti P.,Virology and Microbiology Service of Annunziata Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Objectives A novel and simple method to synthesize antitubercular-protein conjugate by solid phase synthesis was developed employing a carboxypolystyrene resin. The aim was to covalently bind a drug with antitubercular activity, isoniazid, to a biomacromolecule, gelatin, widely used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry. Methods Calorimetric and 1H NMR analyses were performed to verify the bond formation between the antitubercular drug and gelatin. After absorption isoniazid delivers toxic metabolites and so an oxidation test with tert-butyl hydroperoxide was performed to assess the amount of toxic metabolites released from the prodrug (gelatin linked to isoniazid), compared with isoniazid itself. Key findings Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the protein derivative was an excellent isoniazid prodrug since there was a 40% reduction in release of toxic metabolites (isonicotinic acid) by the prodrug. The results clearly showed that antitubercular moieties, covalently linked to a natural polymer, allowed the introduction of peculiar features for specific pharmaceutical applications into the macromolecule. In addition, antitubercular activity of the new polymer was determined by Middlebrook 7H11 medium against Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Conclusions The new isoniazid-gelatin conjugate showed significant antitubercular activity and for this reason should be useful as an efficacious tool in the treatment of tuberculosis. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.


Cassano R.,University of Calabria | Trombino S.,University of Calabria | Ferrarelli T.,University of Calabria | Mauro M.V.,Virology and Microbiology Service of Annunziata Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A | Year: 2012

The purpose of this investigation was to develop small microspheres for delivering antimycobacterial drugs to infected host macrophages. Rifampicin-based microparticles were prepared. The drug was covalently linked to acrylic moieties to obtain a polymerizable derivative for the preparation of materials useful as drug delivery systems that then were loaded with isoniazid acting in synergy with rifampicin. Their antitubercular activity was determined in vitro. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed hydrogel structure. Morphological analysis showed microparticles with spherical shape and homogeneous surface. In vitro release studies were performed in media simulating physiologic pH (7.4) and endosomal of alveolar macrophages pH (5.2). A similar amount of isoniazid was delivered within the first 6 h at both pHs, while a smaller amount of the drug was delivered at pH 7.4 in the last phase of the study. In vitro antitubercular activity showed a behavior comparable to that of rifampicin and isoniazid free. Bioactive swelling matrices, showing a high swelling degree into a medium miming intra alveolar environment, were obtained. They could be applied for their antitubercular activity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Cassano R.,University of Calabria | Trombino S.,University of Calabria | Ferrarelli T.,University of Calabria | Nicoletta F.P.,University of Calabria | And 3 more authors.
Cellulose | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to synthesize a new antibacterial and chelating biopolymer and to evaluate its germicidal activity and its ability in metal ions removal from aqueous solutions. The material was prepared via esterification of hemp with 2-benzyl-4-chlorophenol, a germicide agent, that was covalently coupled to cellulose backbone of hydrophilic fibers by a heterogeneous synthesis, to produce a functionalized biopolymer with a satisfactory degree of substitution. The obtained biopolymer was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Its antibacterial activity in inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in Petri dishes, was evaluated. The results suggested that this biomaterial possesses an excellent in vitro antibacterial activity and so it can be efficiently employed in biomedical fields to ensure a protection against contaminations. On the other hand, the functionalized biopolymer interacts with metal ions thanks to its chelating functional groups. The absorption capacity for a selected metal ion such as Cd(II), was investigated in aqueous solution at pH 0. 65, 4. 1 and 7. 0 by optical emission spectroscopy. This study showed that the new system is very effective in chelating cadmium ions showing the maximum efficiency at pH 4. 1. This feature makes the synthesized biomaterial a potential candidate for metal ions removal. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]Hemp fiber (Cannabis sativa L.) derivatives with antibacterial and chelating properties. Roberta Cassano, Sonia Trombino, Teresa Ferrarelli, Fiore Pasquale Nicoletta, Maria Vittoria Mauro, Cristina Giraldi, Nevio Picci © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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