Subramanian V.,St Georges Healthcare NHS Trust |
Finlayson C.,Cellular Pathology |
Harrison T.,Infectious Diseases |
Rice P.,Virology |
Pollok R.,St Georges Healthcare NHS Trust
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis | Year: 2010
Most cases of cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis that develop in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are caused by reactivation of a latent virus. Primary CMV infections are rare in adult patients. Treatment with immunosuppressive agents increases the infection risk in patients with IBD. We present a 26 year old lady with primary CMV colitis, superimposed on underlying Crohn's colitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by a viral-like prodrome, a positive CMV IgM titer, presence of low avidity IgG antibodies to CMV, high CMV DNA titers in the plasma, and immunohistological detection of CMV positive cells in her colonic mucosa. The patient responded to initial treatment with intravenous ganciclovir with a fall in plasma levels of CMV DNA, treatment was completed with oral valganciclovir until plasma CMV DNA levels became undetectable. © 2009 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation.
Mori M.,Yokohama City University |
Onodera M.,National Center for Child Health and Development |
Morimoto A.,Jichi Medical University |
Kosaka Y.,Hyogo Prefectural Kobe Childrens Hospital |
And 4 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2014
A total of 27/28 (96%) immunocompromised Japanese children received ≥4 doses of palivizumab. No respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospitalizations occurred. Mean palivizumab trough concentrations were 59.0 and 91.8 μg/mL 30 days after the 1st and 4th doses, respectively. of 28 subjects, 27 (96%) experienced ≥1 adverse event and 7 (25%) experienced ≥1 serious adverse event, none of which was considered related to palivizumab. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Deng Y.-M.,Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza |
Iannello P.,Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza |
Smith I.,CSIRO |
Watson J.,CSIRO |
And 6 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2012
Background Swine have receptors for both human and avian influenza viruses and are a natural host for influenza A viruses. The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic (H1N1pdm) virus that was derived from avian, human and swine influenza viruses has infected pigs in various countries. Objectives To investigate the relationship between the H1N1pdm viruses isolated from piggery outbreaks in Australia and human samples associated with one of the outbreaks by phylogenetic analysis, and to determine whether there was any reassortment event occurring during the human-pig interspecies transmission. Methods Real-time RT-PCR and full genome sequencing were carried out on RNA isolated from nasal swabs and/or virus cultures. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the Geneious package. Results The influenza H1N1pdm outbreaks were detected in three pig farms located in three different states in Australia. Further analysis of the Queensland outbreak led to the identification of two distinct virus strains in the pigs. Two staff working in the same piggery were also infected with the same two strains found in the pigs. Full genome sequence analysis on the viruses isolated from pigs and humans did not identify any reassortment of these H1N1pdm viruses with seasonal or avian influenza A viruses. Conclusions This is the first report of swine infected with influenza in Australia and marked the end of the influenza-free era for the Australian swine industry. Although no reassortment was detected in these cases, the ability of these viruses to cross between pigs and humans highlights the importance of monitoring swine for novel influenza infections. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Radujkovic A.,University of Heidelberg |
Schnitzler P.,Virology |
Ho A.D.,University of Heidelberg |
Dreger P.,University of Heidelberg |
Luft T.,University of Heidelberg
Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2016
Background & aims: Azacitidine (AZA) therapy has become the recommended first-line treatment for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and oligoblastic (<30% bone marrow blasts) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, improvement of the efficacy of AZA treatment remains a challenge. We retrospectively tested the hypothesis that VitD levels (25-hydroxyvitamin D3) prior to start of first-line AZA therapy are predictive of overall survival (OS) in patients diagnosed with MDS and secondary oligoblastic AML. Furthermore, the antiproliferative effects of AZA in combination with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were investigated in vitro. Methods: A total of 58 patients treated at our center between 2006 and 2014 were analyzed. Serum levels of VitD were quantified using a standard, commercially available 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 chemiluminescent immunoassay. Effects on cell proliferation were assessed using tetrazolium-based MTT assays. Results: Median serum VitD level prior to AZA treatment was 32.8 nM (range 11.0-101.5 nM). Patient, disease and treatment characteristics did not differ significantly between the low (≤32.8 nM; n = 29) and high (>32.8 nM; n = 29) VitD group. Estimated probability of 2-year OS in the low versus high VitD group was 14% versus 40% (P < 0.05). In multivariable analysis with OS as endpoint, adverse cytogenetics (HR 2.66, P = 0.03) and VitD (per 10 nM decrease, HR 1.68, P = 0.02) were independent predictors of worse survival. In-vitro treatment of myeloid cell lines with AZA in combination with VitD produced synergistic and additive antiproliferative effects. Addition of nanomolar VitD concentrations to AZA resulted in potentiation of AZA activity. Conversely, combination with the VitD antagonist TEI-9647 resulted in inhibition of AZA activity. Conclusions: Our study suggests that higher VitD levels were associated with a survival advantage following first-line AZA therapy. Enhanced cytotoxic effects upon combination treatment may contribute to the observed clinical effects. VitD repletion/supplementation during AZA treatment should be explored. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Barau C.,Bicetre Hospital |
Delaugerre C.,Virology |
Braun J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
De Castro N.,Saint Louis Hospital |
And 6 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2010
Raltegravir concentrations and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA levels in semen samples from 10 treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients were measured after 24 weeks of raltegravir-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Semen and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were below 100 copies/ml and 50 copies/ml, respectively, in all samples. The median raltegravir concentrations in semen samples (n = 10) and in plasma samples (n = 9) drawn simultaneously were 345 (range, 83 to 707) ng/ml and 206 (range, 106 to 986) ng/ml, respectively. The median semen-to-plasma ratio of raltegravir concentration was 1.42 (range, 0.52 to 6.66), indicating good although variable levels of drug penetration of raltegravir in the seminal compartment. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.