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North Granby, VA, United States

Guthrie A.L.,Virginia Zoo | leAnn White C.,U.S. Geological Survey | Brown M.B.,University of Florida
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2013

Mycoplasma agassizii causes upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in Texas tortoises (Gopherus berlandieri). To determine exposure to and shedding of M. agassizii, we collected blood samples and nasal swabs from 40 free-ranging Texas tortoises on public and private lands in Texas, USA, from May to October 2009. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect M. agassizii-specific antibodies. Eleven (28%) tortoises were antibody positive, three (8%) were suspect, and the remaining 26 (65%) were negative. Nasal lavage samples were collected from 35 of the 40 tortoises for M. agassizii culture and PCR to detect shedding of M. agassizii. Current infection with M. agassizii was confirmed in one tortoise that had mild clinical signs of URTD and was positive by ELISA (antibody titer.512), PCR, and culture. The clinical isolate was confirmed as M. agassizii by restriction fragment length polymorphism and immunobinding. © Wildlife Disease Association 2013.

Guthrie A.L.,Virginia Zoo | Knowles S.,U.S. Geological Survey | Ballmann A.E.,U.S. Geological Survey | Lorch J.M.,U.S. Geological Survey
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2016

Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging disease of wildlife believed to be caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. Al‐ though geographic and host ranges have yet to be determined, this disease is characterized by crusty scales, superficial pustules, and sub‐ cutaneous nodules, with subsequent mor‐ bidity and mortality in some snake species. To confirm the presence of SFD and O. ophi‐ odiicola in snakes of eastern Virginia, US, we clinically examined 30 free-ranging snakes on public lands from April to October 2014. Skin biopsy samples were collected from nine snakes that had gross lesions suggestive of SFD; seven of these biopsies were suitable for histologic interpretation, and eight were suitable for culture and PCR detection of O. ophiodiicola. Seven snakes had histologic features consistent with SFD and eight were positive for O. ophiodiicola by PCR or fungal culture. © Wildlife Disease Association 2016.

Guthrie A.L.,Virginia Zoo | Gailbreath K.L.,WestVet Diagnostic Laboratory | Cienava E.A.,WestVet Diagnostic Laboratory | Bradway D.S.,Washington State University | Munoz Gutierrez U.F.,Washington State University
Comparative Medicine | Year: 2012

Two captive cottontop tamarins (Sanguinis oedipus) died within 5 d of each other from systemic infection by Francisella tularensis (tularemia). One tamarin experienced mild clinical signs, including malaise, anorexia, and a mucoid nasal discharge for 4 d before death, whereas the other experienced a more rapid progression of disease that lasted less than 24 h. Differential diagnoses included gram-negative septicemia by an organism such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, or Yersinia; protozoal infection such as Toxoplasma gondii or an acute viral infection such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis. F. tularensis infection was identified by F. tularensis-specific PCR in both primates. Possible sources of infection include aerosol, biting arthropod vectors, and transmission via a rodent reservoir. This case report highlights the importance of tularemia as a differential diagnosis in acute febrile illness in captive nonhuman primates. Copyright 2012 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

Spriggs M.,Mesker Park Zoo and Botanic Garden | Thompson K.A.,Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden | Thompson K.A.,Michigan State University | Barton D.,Mead Johnson Nutrition Company | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2014

Gastrolithiasis was diagnosed in nine prehensile-tailed (PT) porcupines (Coendou prehensilis) housed at six zoologic institutions in the United States and Canada. Affected animals were either asymptomatic or had clinical signs, including weight loss, diarrhea, and depression. Abdominal palpation was adequate for diagnosis in all six antemortem cases, and radiographs confirmed a soft tissue density mass effect produced by the concretion. These gastroliths were all successfully surgically removed. Recurrence of gastrolith formation was common and occurred in four of the cases. Three cases were diagnosed postmortem, with the gastrolith causing gastric perforation in one case. Gastroliths from four cases were identified by mass spectrometry as bile acid precipitates consisting of the insoluble acid form of endogenous glycine-conjugated bile acids. © Copyright 2014 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

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