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Scottsdale, AZ, United States

Looyenga B.D.,Van Andel Research Institute | Hutchings D.,Van Andel Research Institute | Cherni I.,The Translational Genomics Research Institute TGEN | Kingsley C.,Diabetes | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Constitutive activation of STAT3 is a common feature in many solid tumors including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). While activation of STAT3 is commonly achieved by somatic mutations to JAK2 in hematologic malignancies, similar mutations are not often found in solid tumors. Previous work has instead suggested that STAT3 activation in solid tumors is more commonly induced by hyperactive growth factor receptors or autocrine cytokine signaling. The interplay between STAT3 activation and other well-characterized oncogenic "driver" mutations in NSCLC has not been fully characterized, though constitutive STAT3 activation has been proposed to play an important role in resistance to various small-molecule therapies that target these oncogenes. In this study we demonstrate that STAT3 is constitutively activated in human NSCLC samples and in a variety of NSCLC lines independent of activating KRAS or tyrosine kinase mutations. We further show that genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of the gp130/JAK2 signaling pathway disrupts activation of STAT3. Interestingly, treatment of NSCLC cells with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib has no effect on cell proliferation and viability in two-dimensional culture, but inhibits growth in soft agar and xenograft assays. These data demonstrate that JAK2/STAT3 signaling operates independent of known driver mutations in NSCLC and plays critical roles in tumor cell behavior that may not be effectively inhibited by drugs that selectively target these driver mutations. © 2012 Looyenga et al. Source


Jameson G.S.,Virginia per Cancer Center Clinical Trials | Petricoin E.F.,George Mason University | Sachdev J.,Virginia per Cancer Center Clinical Trials | Liotta L.A.,George Mason University | And 14 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2014

The primary objective was to determine if multi-omic molecular profiling (MMP) informed selection of approved cancer treatments could change the clinical course of disease for patients with previously treated metastatic breast cancer (MBC) (i.e., produce a growth modulation index (GMI) ≥1.3). GMI was calculated as the ratio of progression free survival on MMP-selected therapy/time to progression on last prior treatment. To meet the primary objective at least 35 % of the subjects should demonstrate a GMI ≥1.3. Secondary endpoints included determining the response rate (according to RECIST 1.1), the percent of patients with non-progression at 4 months, and overall survival in patients whose therapy is selected by molecular profiling and proteomic analysis. Eligible patients had MBC, with ≥3 prior lines of therapy. A multi-omic based approach was performed incorporating multiplexed immunohistochemistry, c-DNA microarray, and phosphoprotein pathway activation mapping by reverse phase protein array. MMP was performed on fresh core biopsies; results were generated and sent to a Treatment Selection Committee (TSC) for review and treatment selection. Three sites enrolled 28 patients, of which 25 were evaluable. The median range of prior treatment was 7 (range 3–12). The MMP analysis and treatment recommendation were delivered within a median of 15.5 days from biopsy (range 12–23). The TSC selected MMP-rationalized treatment in 100 % (25/25) of cases. None of the MMP-based therapies were the same as what the clinician would have selected if the MMP had not been performed. GMI ≥1.3 was reported in 11/25 (44 %) patients. Partial responses were noted in 5/25 (20 %), stable disease in 8/25 (32 %) and 9/25 (36 %) had no progression at 4 months. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of finding possible treatments for patients with previously treated MBC using a multiplexed MMP-rationalized treatment recommendation. This MMP approach merits further investigation. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Jimeno A.,Aurora University | Weiss G.J.,Virginia per Cancer Center Clinical Trials | Miller Jr. W.H.,McGill University | Gettinger S.,Yale Cancer Center | And 12 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Purpose: To conduct a first-in-human phase I study to determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), characterize the pharmacokinetic profile, and document the antitumor activity of IPI-926, a new chemical entity that inhibits the Hedgehog pathway (HhP). Experimental Design: Patients with solid tumors refractory to standard therapy were given IPI-926 once daily (QD) by mouth in 28-day cycles. The starting dose was 20 mg, and an accelerated titration schedule was used until standard 3 + 3 dose-escalation cohorts were implemented. Pharmacokinetics were evaluated on day -7 and day 22 of cycle 1. Results: Ninety-four patients (32F, 62M; ages, 39-87) received doses ranging from 20 to 210 mg QD. Dose levels up to and including 160 mg administered QD were well tolerated. Toxicities consisted of reversible elevations in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin, fatigue, nausea, alopecia, and muscle spasms. IPI-926 was not associated with hematologic toxicity. IPI-926 pharmacokinetics were characterized by a slow absorption (Tmax = 2-8 hours) and a terminal half-life (t1/2) between 20 and 40 hours, supporting QD dosing. Of those HhP inhibitor-naïve patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) who received more than one dose of IPI-926 and had a follow-up clinical or Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) assessment, nearly a third (8 of 28 patients) showed a response to IPI-926 at doses ≥130 mg. Conclusions: IPI-926 was well tolerated up to 160 mg QD within 28-day cycles, which was established as the recommended phase II dose and schedule for this agent. Single-agent activity of IPI-926 was observed in HhP inhibitor-naïve patients with BCC. © 2013 AACR. Source


Mast C.,Virginia per Cancer Center Clinical Trials | Ramanathan R.K.,Virginia per Cancer Center Clinical Trials | Feinstein D.I.,University of Southern California | Rosen P.,Disney Family Cancer Center
Oncology (Switzerland) | Year: 2014

Both solid and hematologic malignancies may be complicated by coagulopathies. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in the presence of pancreatic cancer is generally unrecognized and may have fatal consequences. The diagnosis of DIC in a patient with advanced cancer is a poor prognostic indicator. Presented here is a case study consisting of two patients presenting with a new diagnosis of pancreatic cancer complicated by DIC. Aggressive supportive treatment in addition to systemic chemotherapy consisting of gemcitabine and nabpaclitaxel was initiated and DIC was controlled. An early diagnosis of DIC and the administration of systemic chemotherapy with a high response rate and an ability to reduce tumor bulk rapidly may offer some patients the probability of recovery. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Liang W.S.,Translational Genomics Research Institute TGen | Craig D.W.,Translational Genomics Research Institute TGen | Carpten J.,Translational Genomics Research Institute TGen | Borad M.J.,Mayo Medical School | And 31 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) is among the most lethal malignancies. While research has implicated multiple genes in disease pathogenesis, identification of therapeutic leads has been difficult and the majority of currently available therapies provide only marginal benefit. To address this issue, our goal was to genomically characterize individual PAC patients to understand the range of aberrations that are occurring in each tumor. Because our understanding of PAC tumorigenesis is limited, evaluation of separate cases may reveal aberrations, that are less common but may provide relevant information on the disease, or that may represent viable therapeutic targets for the patient. We used next generation sequencing to assess global somatic events across 3 PAC patients to characterize each patient and to identify potential targets. This study is the first to report whole genome sequencing (WGS) findings in paired tumor/normal samples collected from 3 separate PAC patients. We generated on average 132 billion mappable bases across all patients using WGS, and identified 142 somatic coding events including point mutations, insertion/deletions, and chromosomal copy number variants. We did not identify any significant somatic translocation events. We also performed RNA sequencing on 2 of these patients' tumors for which tumor RNA was available to evaluate expression changes that may be associated with somatic events, and generated over 100 million mapped reads for each patient. We further performed pathway analysis of all sequencing data to identify processes that may be the most heavily impacted from somatic and expression alterations. As expected, the KRAS signaling pathway was the most heavily impacted pathway (P<0.05), along with tumor-stroma interactions and tumor suppressive pathways. While sequencing of more patients is needed, the high resolution genomic and transcriptomic information we have acquired here provides valuable information on the molecular composition of PAC and helps to establish a foundation for improved therapeutic selection. © 2012 Liang et al. Source

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