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Mahadevan D.,Arizona Cancer Center | Northfelt D.W.,Mayo Medical School | Chalasani P.,Arizona Cancer Center | Rensvold D.,Arizona Cancer Center | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Objectives: UNBS5162 is a novel naphthalimide that binds to DNA by intercalation and suppresses CXCL chemokine elaboration. A Phase I study of UNBS5162 was conducted to establish pharmacokinetics (PK), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity, safety and anti-tumor activity in patients with advanced solid tumors or lymphoma. Methods: UNBS5162 was administered in a 3 + 3 dose escalation scheme by intravenous infusion over 1 h weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle. Safety, serial serum PK and tolerability were captured throughout the study. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors was utilized every 2 cycles to assess for anti-tumor response. Results: Twenty-four patients with metastatic carcinoma and 1 patient with lymphoma were treated at eight dose levels (18-234 mg/m2). All patients were evaluable for tolerability and toxicity. Grade 3 toxicities include nausea (n = 1), fatigue (n = 1) and anorexia (n = 1). Prolongation of QTc [Hodges] was observed in 6 cases (Gr 1 = 2; Gr 2 = 2; Gr 3 = 2). C max and area under the curve increased linearly with dose with a t 1/2 of 30-60 min. 16 patients completed 2 cycles of therapy, all with pharmacodynamics at 8 weeks. Conclusions: The MTD or dose-limiting toxicity for UNBS5162 was not reached due to the magnitude of QTc prolongation at the highest dose of 234 mg/m2/week that led to study termination. © 2012 Japan Society of Clinical Oncology. Source


Looyenga B.D.,Van Andel Research Institute | Cherni I.,The Translational Genomics Research Institute | MacKeigan J.P.,Van Andel Research Institute | Weiss G.J.,The Translational Genomics Research Institute | Weiss G.J.,Virginia per Cancer Center At Scottsdale Healthcare
Translational Oncology | Year: 2011

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been in use as cancer therapeutics for nearly a decade, and their utility in targeting specific malignancies with defined genetic lesions has proven to be remarkably effective. Recent efforts to characterize the spectrum of genetic lesions found in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) have provided important insights into the molecular basis of this disease and have also revealed a wide array of tyrosine kinases that might be effectively targeted for rationally designed therapies. The findings of these studies, however, also provide a cautionary tale about the limitations of single-agent therapies, which fail to account for the genetic heterogeneity and pathway redundancy that characterize advanced NSCLC. Emergence of drug resistance mechanisms to specific TKIs, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, suggests that more sophisticated chemotherapeutic paradigms that target multiple pathways at the same time will be required to effectively treat this disease. © 2011 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Source


Foss K.M.,Translational Genomics Research Institute | Sima C.,Translational Genomics Research Institute | Ugolini D.,University of Genoa | Ugolini D.,Italian National Cancer Institute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2011

Introduction: The ability to diagnose non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at an early stage may lead to improved survival. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed serum-based microRNAs (miRNAs) between patients with early-stage NSCLC and controls. These miRNAs may serve as biomarkers for NSCLC early detection. Methods: miRNA profiling was performed on total RNA extracted from serum obtained from 22 individuals (11 controls and 11 patients with early-stage NSCLC). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to validate the profiling results in the discovery set and in a validation set of 31 controls and 22 patients with early-stage NSCLC. Additionally, six matched plasma samples (four NSCLC cases and two controls) and three serum mesothelioma samples were analyzed by qPCR. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated for each possible combination of the miRNAs measured by qPCR. Results: The expression of hsa-miR-1254 and hsa-miR-574-5p was significantly increased in the early-stage NSCLC samples with respect to the controls. Receiver operating characteristic curves plotting these two miRNAs were able to discriminate early-stage NSCLC samples from controls with 82% and 77% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively, in the discovery cohort and with 73% and 71% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively, in the validation cohort. The mesothelioma and plasma samples did not seem to classify into either NSCLC or control groups. Conclusions: Serum miRNAs are differentially expressed between patients with early-stage NSCLC and controls. The utility of miR-1254 and miR-574-5p serum-based biomarkers as minimally invasive screening and triage tools for subsequent diagnostic evaluation warrants additional validation. Copyright © 2011 The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Source


Arora S.,Translational Genomics Research Institute | Ranade A.R.,Translational Genomics Research Institute | Tran N.L.,Translational Genomics Research Institute | Nasser S.,Translational Genomics Research Institute | And 12 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

Brain metastasis (BM) can affect ∼ 25% of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients during their lifetime. Efforts to characterize patients that will develop BM have been disappointing. microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of target mRNAs. miRNAs play a role in regulating a variety of targets and, consequently, multiple pathways, which make them a powerful tool for early detection of disease, risk assessment, and prognosis. We investigated miRNAs that may serve as biomarkers to differentiate between NSCLC patients with and without BM. miRNA microarray profiling was performed on samples from clinically matched NSCLC from seven patients with BM (BM+) and six without BM (BM-). Using t-test and further qRT-PCR validation, eight miRNAs were confirmed to be significantly differentially expressed. Of these, expression of miR-328 and miR-330-3p were able to correctly classify BM+ vs. BM- patients. This classifier was used on a validation cohort (n = 15), and it correctly classified 12/15 patients. Gene expression analysis comparing A549 parental and A549 cells stably transfected to over-express miR-328 (A549-328) identified several significantly differentially expressed genes. PRKCA was one of the genes over-expressed in A549-328 cells. Additionally, A549-328 cells had significantly increased cell migration compared to A549 cells, which was significantly reduced upon PRKCA knockdown. In summary, miR-328 has a role in conferring migratory potential to NSCLC cells working in part through PRKCA and with further corroboration in additional independent cohorts, these miRNAs may be incorporated into clinical treatment decision making to stratify NSCLC patients at higher risk for developing BM. Copyright © 2011 UICC. Source


Allen K.E.,Translational Genomics Research Institute | Weiss G.J.,Translational Genomics Research Institute | Weiss G.J.,Virginia per Cancer Center At Scottsdale Healthcare
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Chemoresistance to many commercially available cancer therapeutic drugs is a common occurrence and contributes to cancermortality as it often leads to disease progression. There have been a number of studies evaluating the mechanisms of resistance and the biological factors involved. microRNAs have recently been identified as playing a role in the regulation of key genes implicated as cancer therapeutic targets or in mechanisms of chemoresistance including EGFR, MDR1, PTEN, Bak1, and PDCD4 among others. This article briefly reviews chemoresistance mechanisms, discusses how microRNAs can play a role in those mechanisms, and summarizes current research involving microRNAs as both regulators of key target genes for chemoresistance and biomarkers for treatment response. It is clear from the accumulating literature that microRNAs can play an important role in chemoresistance and hold much promise for the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine. This review brings together much of thisnew research as a starting point for identifying key areas of interest and potentials for future study. © 2010 AACR. Source

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