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Neal J.M.,Virginia Mason Medical Center
Regional anesthesia and pain medicine | Year: 2010

The role of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia (UGRA) in reducing the frequency of regional anesthetic-related complications is difficult to ascertain from analyzing the limited literature on the topic. This evidence-based review critically evaluates the contributions of UGRA to improved patient safety, particularly as compared with standard nerve localization tools. Randomized controlled trials that compared UGRA with another form of neural localization and case series of more than 500 patients were used to compare safety parameters. The quality of studies and strength of evidence were graded. Of those randomized controlled trials identified by our search techniques, 22 compared the incidence of postoperative nerve symptoms, 17 assessed local anesthetic systemic toxicity parameters, and 3 studied hemidiaphragmatic paresis. Statistical proof for meaningful reduction in the frequency of extremely rare complications, such as permanent peripheral nerve injury, is likely unattainable. Although there is evidence for UGRA reducing the occurrence of vascular puncture and the frequency of hemidiaphragmatic paresis, as yet there is at best inconclusive scientific proof that these surrogate outcomes are linked to actual reduction of their associated complications, such as local anesthetic systemic toxicity or predictable diaphragmatic impairment in at-risk individuals. This evidence-based review thus strives to summarize both the power and the limitations of UGRA as a tool for improving patient safety.

Neal J.M.,Virginia Mason Medical Center
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine | Year: 2011

The Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Fellowship Directors Group develops and maintains guidelines for fellowship training in the subspecialty. These guidelines update the original guidelines that were published in 2005. The guidelines address 3 major topic areas: organization and resources, the educational program, and the evaluation process. Copyright © 2011 American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

Purpose To compare final spherical equivalent (SE) refractions in patients who previously underwent radial keratotomy (RK) undergoing routine cataract surgery using keratometry (K) values from the Tomey (Topographic Modeling System [TMS]; Tomey Corp., Phoenix, AZ) Placido topographer, manual keratometer, and IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany) keratometer using the Haigis formulas. Design Retrospective case series. Subjects A total of 26 RK eyes (20 patients) with a minimum of 3 months postoperative follow-up. Methods The following K values were evaluated: TMS topography (flattest K within first 9 rings, average K, minimum K), manual K, IOLMaster K. The final refractive goal was -0.50 diopters (D) for all eyes. The Haigis formula with target refraction -0.50 D was used. In addition, because of observed hyperopic overcorrections, IOLMaster K with the Haigis formula set to -1.00 D but with a final refractive goal of -0.50 D was also tested. The Haigis-L formula using IOLMaster K values was separately evaluated. Main Outcome Measures Mean final SE refraction, percent final SE within ideal (-0.12 to -1.00 D), acceptable (0.25 to -1.50 D), or unacceptable (<-1.50 or >0.25 D) range and within ±0.50 D and ±1.00 D of the intended result. Results Best results with minimal overcorrections were achieved with TMS flattest K (mean -0.68±0.60 D, 73% within ±0.50 D, and 88% within ±1.00 D of the surgical goal) and IOLMaster K set for target -1.00 D (mean -0.66±0.61 D, 69% within ±0.50 D, and 88% within ±1.00 D of the surgical goal). Other values produced more hyperopic (manual, IOLMaster K set for target -0.50 D, average topography) or higher myopic (minimum topography, Haigis-L) results. Conclusions For simplicity, using the IOLMaster K values combined with the Haigis formula set for target refraction -1.00 D produces acceptable results aiming for -0.50 D final SE refractions in former RK patients undergoing routine cataract surgery. © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Peng S.L.,Virginia Mason Medical Center
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2010

Forkhead (Fox) transcription factors have been increasingly recognized to play key roles in immune homeostasis, especially Foxp3 for its role in the development and function of regulatory T cells, and Foxo family members for their regulatory role in T and B lymphocytes as well as other leukocytes. Although these transcription factors positively regulate the expression of multiple target genes, a unique functional attribute of these genes is the maintenance of leukocyte homeostasis, such as the preservation of the naïve or quiescent T cell state and prevention of autoimmunity. As a result, many chronic inflammatory processes appear to reflect a relative loss of activity of one of these transcription factors, raising the possibility that therapeutic approaches which confer gain-of-function Fox activity may be beneficial. On the other hand, however, some of the Fox family members also appear to promote and/or maintain chronic inflammation by preserving inflammatory leukocyte survival and/or otherwise promoting the expression of inflammatory target genes, at least in some cell types such as neutrophils. Therefore, although the role of Fox in inflammatory disorders remains complex and incompletely understood, the continued study of these factors provides new insight into the initiation, maintenance, and propagation of inflammation. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Salinas F.V.,Virginia Mason Medical Center
Regional anesthesia and pain medicine | Year: 2010

This qualitative systematic review summarizes existing evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ultrasound (US) to alternative techniques for lower extremity peripheral nerve block. There were 11 RCTs of sufficient quality for inclusion. Jadad scores ranged from 1 to 4 with a median of 3. For femoral nerve blocks, US provided shorter onset and improved quality of sensory and motor block, as well as a decrease in local anesthetic requirements. For sciatic nerve blocks, US resulted in a higher percentage of patients with complete sensory and motor block, as well as decreased local anesthetic requirements. In 2 of the studies for sciatic nerve block, US resulted in a shorter time to successfully complete the procedure. No study was powered to detect a difference in surgical block success. Overall, there was significant heterogeneity in the definitions of successful sensory and motor block. In 2 studies, the optimal peripheral nerve stimulation technique may have not been used, resulting in a potential bias. No RCT reported US as inferior to alternative techniques in any outcome. There is level Ib evidence to make a grade A recommendation that US guidance provides improvements in onset and success of sensory block, a decrease in local anesthetic requirements, and decreased time to perform lower extremity peripheral nerve blocks.

Neal J.M.,Virginia Mason Medical Center
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine | Year: 2016

In 2010, the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine's evidence-based medicine assessment of ultrasound (US)- guided regional anesthesia (UGRA) analyzed the effect of this nerve localization technology on patient safety. That analysis focused on 4 important regional anesthesia complications: peripheral nerve injury, local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST), hemidiaphragmatic paresis (HDP), and pneumothorax. In the intervening 5 years, further research has allowed us to refine our original conclusions. This update reviews previous findings and critically evaluates new literature published since late 2009 that compares the patient safety attributes of UGRA with those of traditional nerve localization methods. As with the previous version of this exercise, analysis focused on randomized controlled trials that compared UGRA with an alternative neural localization method and case series of more than 500 patients. The Jadad score was used to grade individual study quality, and conclusions were graded as to strength of evidence. Of those randomized controlled trials identified by our search techniques, 28 compared the incidence of postoperative nerve symptoms, 27 assessed LAST parameters, 7 studied HDP, and 9 reported the incidence of pneumothorax. The current analysis strengthens our original conclusions that US guidance has no significant effect on the incidence of postoperative neurologic symptoms and that UGRA reduces the incidence and intensity of HDP but does so in an unpredictablemanner. Conversely, emerging evidence supports the effectiveness of US guidance for reducing LAST across its clinical presentation continuum. The predicted frequency of pneumothorax has grown smaller in tandem with increased experience with US-guided supraclavicular block. This evidence-based review summarizes both the power and the limitations of UGRA as a tool for improving patient safety. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

Neal J.M.,Virginia Mason Medical Center
Regional anesthesia and pain medicine | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVES: The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine charged an expert panel to examine the evidence basis for ultrasound guidance as a nerve localization tool in the clinical practices of regional anesthesia and interventional pain medicine. METHODS: The panel searched, examined, and assessed the literature of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia (UGRA) from the past 20 years. The qualities of studies were graded using the Jadad score. Strength of evidence and recommendations were graded using an accepted rating tool. RESULTS: The panel made specific literature-based assessments concerning the relative advantages and limitations of UGRA relative to traditional nerve localization methods as they pertained to block characteristics and complications. Assessments and recommendations were made for upper and lower extremity, neuraxial, and truncal blocks and include pediatrics and interventional pain medicine. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound guidance improves block characteristics (particularly performance time and surrogate measures of success) that are often block specific and that may impart an efficiency advantage depending on individual practitioner circumstances. Evidence for UGRA impacting patient safety is currently limited to the demonstration of improvements in the frequency of surrogate events for serious complications.

Markar S.R.,Virginia Mason Medical Center
Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract | Year: 2012

The aim of this study is to provide a contemporary quantitative analysis of the existing literature examining the relationship between surgical caseload and outcome following esophageal resection. Medline, Embase, trial registries, conference proceedings and reference lists were searched for trials comparing clinical outcome following esophagectomy from high- and low-volume hospitals since 2000. Primary outcomes were in-hospital and 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay and post-operative complications. Nine appropriate publications comprising 27,843 esophagectomy operations were included, 12,130 and 15,713 operations were performed in low- and high-volume surgical units, respectively. Esophagectomy at low-volume hospitals was associated with a significant increase in incidence of in-hospital (8.48% vs. 2.82%; pooled odds ratio (POR) = 0.29; P < 0.0001) and 30-day mortality (2.09% vs. 0.73%; POR = 0.31; P < 0.0001). There was insufficient data for conclusive statistical analysis of length of hospital stay or post-operative complications. This meta-analysis does suggest a benefit in the centralization of esophageal cancer surgery to high-volume institutions with respect to mortality. The outcomes of this study are of interest to patients, healthcare providers and payers, particularly regarding service reconfiguration and more specifically centralization of services. Future studies that look at long-term survival will help improve understanding of any late consequences such as survival and quality of life following esophageal surgery at low- and high-volume hospitals.

Lin E.C.,Virginia Mason Medical Center
Mayo Clinic Proceedings | Year: 2010

This review provides a practical overview of the excess cancer risks related to radiation from medical imaging. Primary care physicians should have a basic understanding of these risks. Because of recent attention to this issue, patients are more likely to express concerns over radiation risk. In addition, physicians can play a role in reducing radiation risk to their patients by considering these risks when making imaging referrals. This review provides a brief overview of the evidence pertaining to low-level radiation and excess cancer risks and addresses the radiation doses and risks from common medical imaging studies. Specific subsets of patients may be at greater risk from radiation exposure, and radiation risk should be considered carefully in these patients. Recent technical innovations have contributed to lowering the radiation dose from computed tomography, and the referring physician should be aware of these innovations in making imaging referrals.

Virginia Mason Medical Center | Date: 2015-09-18

A podiatry assist device for use with a patient in a wheelchair. While the patient remains in the wheelchair, the device supports at least one of the patients lower extremities as the patient is examined and/or treated. The device includes a pad, a height adjustment mechanism, and a base. At least one of the patients lower extremities is placed upon and supported by the pad. The height adjustment mechanism is coupled to the pad and operable to raise and lower the pad with respect to the floor. The base is coupled to the height adjustment mechanism and operable to support both the height adjustment mechanism and the pad. Optionally, the device may include a tray.

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