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Arlington, VA, United States

Duhamel D.R.,Lung Cancer Center | Hales J.B.,Virginia Hospital Center
Journal of Visualized Experiments | Year: 2010

Bronchial thermoplasty is a non-drug procedure for severe persistent asthma that delivers thermal energy to the airway wall in a precisely controlled manner to reduce excessive airway smooth muscle. Reducing airway smooth muscle decreases the ability of the airways to constrict, thereby reducing the frequency of asthma attacks. Bronchial thermoplasty is delivered by the Alair System and is performed in three outpatient procedure visits, each scheduled approximately three weeks apart. The first procedure treats the airways of the right lower lobe, the second treats the airways of the left lower lobe and the third and final procedure treats the airways in both upper lobes. After all three procedures are performed the bronchial thermoplasty treatment is complete. Bronchial thermoplasty is performed during bronchoscopy with the patient under moderate sedation. All accessible airways distal to the mainstem bronchi between 3 and 10 mm in diameter, with the exception of the right middle lobe, are treated under bronchoscopic visualization. Contiguous and non-overlapping activations of the device are used, moving from distal to proximal along the length of the airway, and systematically from airway to airway as described previously. Although conceptually straightforward, the actual execution of bronchial thermoplasty is quite intricate and procedural duration for the treatment of a single lobe is often substantially longer than encountered during routine bronchoscopy. As such, bronchial thermoplasty should be considered a complex interventional bronchoscopy and is intended for the experienced bronchoscopist. Optimal patient management is critical in any such complex and longer duration bronchoscopic procedure. This article discusses the importance of careful patient selection, patient preparation, patient management, procedure duration, postoperative care and follow-up to ensure that bronchial thermoplasty is performed safely. Bronchial thermoplasty is expected to complement asthma maintenance medications by providing long-lasting asthma control and improving asthma-related quality of life of patients with severe asthma. In addition, bronchial thermoplasty has been demonstrated to reduce severe exacerbations (asthma attacks) emergency rooms visits for respiratory symptoms, and time lost from work, school and other daily activities due to asthma. © 2010 Journal of Visualized Experiments. Source

Bedolla R.G.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Gong J.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Prihoda T.J.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Yeh I.-T.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Prediction of prostate cancer prognosis is challenging and predictive biomarkers of recurrence remain elusive. Although prostate specific antigen (PSA) has high sensitivity (90%) at a PSA level of 4.0 ng/mL, its low specificity leads to many false positive results and considerable overtreatment of patients and its performance at lower ranges is poor. Given the histopathological and molecular heterogeneity of prostate cancer, we propose that a panel of markers will be a better tool than a single marker. We tested a panel of markers composed of the anti-apoptotic protein FLIP and its transcriptional regulators Sp1 and Sp3 using prostate tissues from 64 patients with recurrent and non-recurrent cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy as primary treatment for prostate cancer and were followed with PSA measurements for at least 5 years. Immunohistochemical staining for Sp1, Sp3, and FLIP was performed on these tissues and scored based on the proportion and intensity of staining. The predictive value of the FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 signature for clinical outcome (recurrence vs. non-recurrence) was explored with logistic regression, and combinations of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 and Gleason score were analyzed with a stepwise (backward and forward) logistic model. The discrimination of the markers was identified by sensitivity-specificity analysis and the diagnostic value of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 was determined using area under the curve (AUC) for receiver operator characteristic curves. The AUCs for FLIP, Sp1, Sp3, and Gleason score for predicting PSA failure and non-failure were 0.71, 0.66, 0.68, and 0.76, respectively. However, this increased to 0.93 when combined. Thus, the "biomarker signature" of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 combined with Gleason score predicted disease recurrence and stratified patients who are likely to benefit from more aggressive treatment. Source

Krueger F.,George Mason University | Parasuraman R.,George Mason University | Moody L.,George Mason University | Twieg P.,George Mason University | And 4 more authors.
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience | Year: 2013

The neuropeptide oxytocin functions as a hormone and neurotransmitter and facilitates complex social cognition and approach behavior. Given that empathy is an essential ingredient for third-party decision-making in institutions of justice, we investigated whether exogenous oxytocin modulates empathy of an unaffected third-party toward offenders and victims of criminal offenses. Healthy male participants received intranasal oxytocin or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. Participants were given a set of legal vignettes that described an event during which an offender engaged in criminal offenses against victims. As an unaffected third-party, participants were asked to rate those criminal offenses on the degree to which the offender deserved punishment and how much harm was inflicted on the victim. Exogenous oxytocin selectively increased third-party decision-makers' perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses. We argue that oxytocin promoted empathic concern for the victim, which in turn increased the tendency for prosocial approach behavior regarding the interpersonal relationship between an unaffected third-party and a fictional victim in the criminal scenarios. Future research should explore the context- and person-dependent nature of exogenous oxytocin in individuals with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, in whom deficits in empathy feature prominently. © The Author (2012). Published by Oxford University Press. Source

Boelig R.C.,Thomas Jefferson University | Orzechowski K.M.,Virginia Hospital Center | Berghella V.,Thomas Jefferson University
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2016

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate differences in risk factors and delivery outcomes among women with spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) with short (≤25 mm) versus normal (>25 mm) cervical length (CL). Methods: Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of singleton gestations between 18 0/7 and 23 6/7 weeks, without prior sPTB, undergoing universal transvaginal CL screening between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. Only women with sPTB (<37 0/7 weeks) were included. Demographic characteristics, risk factors for sPTB, delivery outcomes and presentation of PTB were collected. The primary outcome was mean number of risk factors. Results: The cohort included 2071 women, of which 145 (7%) had PTB and 84 (4%) had sPTB. Sixty-nine (82%) women with sPTB had a CL >25 mm and 15 (18%) had a CL≤25 mm. Women with a short CL did not differ from women with normal CL with respect to demographic variables or mean number of risk factors (4.20 ± 2.11 versus 3.52 ± 1.97, p = 0.23), but they did deliver at a significantly earlier gestational age (25.0 ± 1.1 versus 34.6 ± 3.1 weeks, p < 0.01). The distribution of the presentation of sPTB was different in women with a short versus normal CL (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Among women with sPTB, women with a short CL had similar number of risk factors, but were more likely to deliver at a significantly earlier gestational age. A short CL identifies women at risk for very early sPTB. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Aung P.P.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Killian K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Poropatich C.O.,Virginia Hospital Center | Linehan W.M.,Urologic | Merino M.J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Human Pathology | Year: 2013

Primary neuroendocrine (NE) tumors of the kidney (PNRTs) are rare and frequently mistaken for other renal and urothelial cancers. We evaluated morphological and molecular findings of 11 PNRTs classified according to the World Health Organization classification of lung NE tumors. Patients included 5 men and 6 women with a median age of 50 years. These tumors occurred in the left (5/11), right (3/11), and horseshoe (1/11) kidney. The histologic patterns were predominantly solid, trabecular, and pseudoglandular. Lymphovascular invasion and calcification were found in 3 and 1 cases, respectively. There were 2 atypical and 9 typical carcinoids. At the time of surgery, 2 patients with atypical carcinoids had hepatic metastasis, and 1 of the typical carcinoid patients had lymph node metastasis. All cases showed<1% proliferative rate, except 2 cases with hepatic metastasis, which showed 3% to 5% with MIB1/Ki-67 immunostaining. Immunostainings were frequently positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD56, CD99, and neuron-specific enolase. Follow-up data (average 4 years) were available for 6 patients. Two patients with distant metastasis were alive with disease, and four patients with no metastasis were alive without disease. We evaluated the association of PNRT and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 3p21 and found LOH in 2 of 3 cases. However, the comparative genomic hybridization study (2/2) did not demonstrate significant chromosomal imbalances. We conclude that PNRTs are positive for NE markers and may have LOH on chromosome 3p21. PNRTs should be classified as NE tumors in other sites, and proliferative rate can be an indicator of aggressive behavior/metastasis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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