Virbac Australia

Milperra, Australia

Virbac Australia

Milperra, Australia
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Brazier I.,University of Sydney | Kelman M.,Virbac Australia | Ward M.P.,University of Sydney
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to describe the association between landscape and climate factors and the occurrence of tick paralysis cases in dogs and cats reported by veterinarians in Australia. Data were collated based on postcode of residence of the animal and the corresponding landscape (landcover and elevation) and climate (precipitation, temperature) information was derived. During the study period (October 2010-December 2012), a total of 5560 cases (4235 [76%] canine and 1325 [24%] feline cases) were reported from 341 postcodes, mostly along the eastern seaboard of Australia and from the states of New South Wales and Queensland. Significantly more cases were reported from postcodes which contained areas of broadleaved, evergreen tree coverage (P = 0.0019); broadleaved, deciduous open tree coverage (P = 0.0416); and water bodies (P = 0.0394). Significantly fewer tick paralysis cases were reported from postcodes which contained areas of sparse herbaceous or sparse shrub coverage (P = 0.0297) and areas that were cultivated and managed (P = 0.0005). No significant (P = 0.6998) correlation between number of tick paralysis cases reported per postcode and elevation was found. Strong positive correlations were found between number of cases reported per postcode and the annual minimum (rSP = 0.9552, P < 0.0001) and maximum (rSP = 0.9075; P = 0.0001) precipitation. Correlations between reported tick paralysis cases and temperature variables were much weaker than for precipitation, rSP < 0.23. For maximum temperature, the strongest correlation between cases was found in winter (rSP = 0.1877; P = 0.0005) and for minimum temperature in autumn (rSP = 0.2289: P < 0.0001). Study findings suggest that tick paralysis cases are more likely to occur and be reported in certain eco-climatic zones, such as those with higher rainfall and containing tree cover and areas of water. Veterinarians and pet owners in these zones should be particularly alert for tick paralysis cases to maximize the benefits of early treatment, and to be vigilant to use chemical prophylaxis to reduce the risk of tick parasitism. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ling M.,University of Sydney | Norris J.M.,University of Sydney | Kelman M.,Virbac Australia | Ward M.P.,University of Sydney
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2012

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious cause of serious and often fatal disease in dogs worldwide despite the availability of safe and efficacious vaccines. Although a number of studies have focussed on identifying risk factors in disease development, risk factors associated with death from CPV are largely unknown. In this study we analysed a total of 1451 CPV cases reported from an Australian surveillance system - using univariate and multivariate techniques - to determine significant risk factors associated with death and euthanasia. A crude case fatality rate of 42.3% was estimated - higher than has been reported previously. We found that 3.3% of CPV cases had a history of vaccination in the previous 12 months, despite having completed the primary puppy vaccination course. The majority (89.5%) of these cases occurred in dogs <12 months of age, indicating failure of the primary vaccination course to provide protective immunity (most likely due to interference of the vaccine antigen with maternal antibodies but other reasons are discussed). Extending the age at which the final puppy vaccination is administered might be one of several strategies to consider. The final multivariate model showed that in non-litter CPV cases, risk of death was significantly associated with season of diagnosis (summer) and pedigree type (hounds and non-sporting dogs). Euthanasia in non-litter CPV cases was significantly associated with season of diagnosis (summer), state of residence (Northern Territory/South Australia/Tasmania combined), age (


Eppleston K.R.,University of Sydney | Kelman M.,Virbac Australia | Ward M.P.,University of Sydney
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2013

Tick paralysis is a serious and potentially fatal condition of Australian companion animals induced by the paralysis ticks, Ixodes holocyclus and Ixodes cornuatus. Limited published information is available on the distribution, seasonality and risk factors for tick paralysis mortality in dogs and cats. This study describes 3479 cases of canine and feline tick paralysis in Australia using data extracted from a real-time disease surveillance program. Risk factors for mortality were identified, and maps of the distribution of cases were generated. Cluster analysis was performed using a space-time permutation scan statistic. Tick paralysis was found to be distinctly seasonal, with most cases reported during spring. Most cases were located on the eastern coast of Australia with New South Wales and Queensland accounting for the majority of reported cases. A cluster of cases was identified on the south coast of New South Wales. Dogs were found to be at significantly higher risk (P< 0.05) of death if less than 6 months of age or if a toy breed. No significant risk factors for mortality were identified for cats. Some animals receiving chemoprophylactic treatment for tick infestation experienced tick paralysis during the products' period of effectiveness. There is a high risk of tick paralysis in dogs and cats on the eastern coast of Australia during the spring months. The risk factors for mortality identified can be used by veterinarians to determine prognosis in cases of canine tick paralysis and potentially to improve the treatment of cases. Daily tick searches of pets - particularly in high risk areas and during high risk periods - are recommended since the prevention of tick paralysis via chemoprophylaxis is not 100% guaranteed across the whole population. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Brady S.,University of Sydney | Norris J.M.,University of Sydney | Kelman M.,Virbac Australia | Ward M.P.,University of Sydney
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

To identify clusters of canine parvoviral related disease occurring in Australia during 2010 and investigate the role of socio-economic factors contributing to these clusters, reported cases of canine parvovirus were extracted from an on-line disease surveillance system. Reported residential postcode was used to locate cases, and clusters were identified using a scan statistic. Cases included in clusters were compared to those not included in such clusters with respect to human socioeconomic factors (postcode area relative socioeconomic disadvantage, economic resources, education and occupation) and dog factors (neuter status, breed, age, gender, vaccination status). During 2010, there were 1187 cases of canine parvovirus reported. Nineteen significant (P<0.05) disease clusters were identified, most commonly located in New South Wales. Eleven (58%) clusters occurred between April and July, and the average cluster length was 5.7. days. All clusters occurred in postcodes with a significantly (P<0.05) greater level of relative socioeconomic disadvantage and a lower rank in education and occupation, and it was noted that clustered cases were less likely to have been neutered (P=0.004). No significant difference (P>0.05) was found between cases reported from cluster postcodes and those not within clusters for dog age, gender, breed or vaccination status (although the latter needs to be interpreted with caution, since vaccination was absent in most of the cases). Further research is required to investigate the apparent association between indicators of poor socioeconomic status and clusters of reported canine parvovirus diseases; however these initial findings may be useful for developing geographically- and temporally-targeted prevention and disease control programs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Rika-Heke T.,University of Sydney | Kelman M.,Virbac Australia | Ward M.P.,University of Sydney
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to describe the association between climate, weather and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis, feline tick paralysis and canine parvovirus in Australia. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and monthly average rainfall (mm) data were used as indices for climate and weather, respectively. Case data were extracted from a voluntary national companion animal disease surveillance resource. Climate and weather data were obtained from the Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology. During the 4-year study period (January 2010-December 2013), a total of 4742 canine parvovirus cases and 8417 tick paralysis cases were reported.No significant (P ≥ 0.05) correlations were found between the SOI and parvovirus, canine tick paralysis or feline tick paralysis. A significant (P < 0.05) positive cross-correlation was found between parvovirus occurrence and rainfall in the same month (0.28), and significant negative cross-correlations (-0.26 to -0.36) between parvovirus occurrence and rainfall 4-6 months previously. Significant (P < 0.05) negative cross-correlations (-0.34 to -0.39) were found between canine tick paralysis occurrence and rainfall 1-3 months previously, and significant positive cross-correlations (0.29-0.47) between canine tick paralysis occurrence and rainfall 7-10 months previously. Significant positive cross-correlations (0.37-0.68) were found between cases of feline tick paralysis and rainfall 6-10 months previously.These findings may offer a useful tool for the management and prevention of tick paralysis and canine parvovirus, by providing an evidence base supporting the recommendations of veterinarians to clients thus reducing the impact of these diseases. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Wong W.T.,University of Sydney | Kelman M.,Virbac Australia | Ward M.P.,University of Sydney
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

Reported cases of feline upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) - presumptively diagnosed as feline herpesvirus (FHV) or feline calicivirus (FCV) - throughout Australia (2010-2012) were obtained from Disease WatchDog, a companion animal disease surveillance system. This surveillance system is based on voluntary reporting of cases by veterinarians, using a web-based program. Animal factors, location and vaccination information are also reported. Cases reported were mapped and seasonal patterns were described. A total of 131 FHV cases and 120 FCV cases were reported. Excluding euthanasia, case fatality rates were 1.12% and 1.28%, respectively. The largest proportion of cases was reported in winter. Young cats (≤2 years), intact cats, unvaccinated cats and (for FHV) male cats appeared to be over-represented in the cases reported. The distributions of cases reported in this surveillance system provide information to aid the diagnosis of infectious feline URTD and to develop client educational programs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Ward M.P.,University of Sydney | Kelman M.,Virbac Australia
Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Infectious disease surveillance in companion animals has a long history. However, it has mostly taken the form of ad hoc surveys, or has focused on adverse reactions to pharmaceuticals. In 2006 a Blue Ribbon Panel was convened by the U.S. White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to discuss the potential utility of a national companion animal health surveillance system. Such a system could provide fundamental information about disease occurrence, transmission and risk factors; and could facilitate industry-supported pharmaco-epidemiological studies and post-market surveillance.Disease WatchDog, a prospective national disease surveillance project, was officially launched in January 2010 to capture data on diseases in dogs and cats throughout Australia. Participation is encouraged by providing registrants real-time disease maps and material for improved communication between veterinarians and clients.From January to mid-November 2010, an estimated 31% of veterinary clinics Australia-wide joined the project. Over 1300 disease cases - including Canine Parvovirus (CPV), Canine Distemper, Canine Hepatitis, Feline Calicivirus, Feline Herpesvirus, and Tick Paralysis - were reported. In New South Wales alone, 552 CPV cases in dogs were reported from 89 postcode locations. New South Wales data was scanned using the space-time permutation test. Up to 24 clusters (P<. 0.01) were identified, occurring in all months except March. The greatest number of clusters (n= 6) were identified in April. The most likely cluster was identified in western Sydney, where 36 cases of CPV were reported from a postcode in February. Although the project is still in its infancy, already new information on disease distribution has been produced. Disease information generated could facilitate targeted control and prevention programs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of Sydney and Virbac Australia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997) | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to describe the association between climate, weather and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis, feline tick paralysis and canine parvovirus in Australia. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and monthly average rainfall (mm) data were used as indices for climate and weather, respectively. Case data were extracted from a voluntary national companion animal disease surveillance resource. Climate and weather data were obtained from the Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology. During the 4-year study period (January 2010-December 2013), a total of 4742 canine parvovirus cases and 8417 tick paralysis cases were reported. No significant (P0.05) correlations were found between the SOI and parvovirus, canine tick paralysis or feline tick paralysis. A significant (P<0.05) positive cross-correlation was found between parvovirus occurrence and rainfall in the same month (0.28), and significant negative cross-correlations (-0.26 to -0.36) between parvovirus occurrence and rainfall 4-6 months previously. Significant (P<0.05) negative cross-correlations (-0.34 to -0.39) were found between canine tick paralysis occurrence and rainfall 1-3 months previously, and significant positive cross-correlations (0.29-0.47) between canine tick paralysis occurrence and rainfall 7-10 months previously. Significant positive cross-correlations (0.37-0.68) were found between cases of feline tick paralysis and rainfall 6-10 months previously. These findings may offer a useful tool for the management and prevention of tick paralysis and canine parvovirus, by providing an evidence base supporting the recommendations of veterinarians to clients thus reducing the impact of these diseases.

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