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New Orleans, MD, United States

Fuery A.,Baylor College of Medicine | Browning G.R.,Baylor College of Medicine | Tan J.,Baylor College of Medicine | Long S.,Viral Oncology Program | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants. A number of EEHV types and subtypes exist, where most deaths have been caused by EEHV1A and EEHV1B. EEHV4 has been attributed to two deaths, but as both diagnoses were made postmortem, EEHV4 disease has not yet been observed and recorded clinically. In this brief communication, two cases of EEHV4 infection in juvenile elephants at the Houston Zoo are described, where both cases were resolved following intensive treatment and administration of famciclovir. A quantitative real-Time polymerase chain reaction detected EEHV4 viremia that correlated with clinical signs. High levels of EEHV4 shedding from trunk wash secretions of the first viremic elephant correlated with subsequent infection of the second elephant with EEHV4. It is hoped that the observations made in these cases-And the successful treatment regimen used-will help other institutions identify and treat EEHV4 infection in the future. © Copyright 2016 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Zheng D.,Johns Hopkins University | Zheng D.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology | Cho Y.G.,Johns Hopkins University | Wang L.,Johns Hopkins University | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases

Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has a restricted seroprevalence. Both viruses are associated with malignancies that have an increased frequency in individuals who are coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).Methods.To obtain an overview of humoral immune responses to these viruses, we generated a protein array that displayed 174 EBV and KSHV polypeptides purified from yeast. Antibody responses to EBV and KSHV were examined in plasma from healthy volunteers and patients with B cell lymphoma or with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma or lymphoma.Results.In addition to the commonly studied antigens, IgG responses were frequently detected to the tegument proteins KSHV ORF38 and EBV BBRF and BGLF2 and BNRF1 and to the EBV early lytic proteins BRRF1 and BORF2. The EBV vIL-10 protein was particularly well recognized by plasma IgA. The most intense IgG responses to EBV antigens occurred in HIV-1-positive patients. No clear correlation was observed between viral DNA load in plasma and antibody profile.Conclusions.The protein array provided a sensitive platform for global screening; identified new, frequently recognized viral antigens; and revealed a broader humoral response to EBV compared with KSHV in the same patients. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. Source

Ortega J.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Corpa J.M.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Orden J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Blanco J.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation

A 21-year-old male African elephant (Loxodonta africana) died suddenly with no previous medical history. Grossly, there were severe multifocal epicardial and endocardial hemorrhages of the atria and ventricles, hydropericardium, multifocal pleural hemorrhages, and severe pulmonary congestion and edema. Histologically, there was fibrinoid vasculitis and thrombosis in the heart and lung and myocardial necrosis. Citrobacter freundii was isolated in abundance in pure culture from liver and heart samples. Low levels of multiples types of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV-6, EEHV-2B, and EEHV-3A) were detected in spleen samples, but not in heart samples. The levels of EEHV DNA found were much lower than those usually associated with acute EEHV hemorrhagic disease, and many other genomic loci that would normally be found in such cases were evidently below the level of detection. Therefore, these findings are unlikely to indicate lethal EEHV disease. Polymerase chain reaction for encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and toxicology for oleander (Nerium oleander) were negative. Stress, resulting from recent transport, and antimicrobial therapy may have contributed to the death of this animal. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

Stanton J.J.,Baylor College of Medicine | Zong J.-C.,Viral Oncology Program | Eng C.,Baylor College of Medicine | Howard L.,Houston Zoo Inc. | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus); however, sporadic shedding of virus in trunk washes collected from healthy elephants also has been detected. Data regarding the relationship of viral loads in blood compared with trunk washes are lacking, and questions about whether elephants can undergo multiple infections with EEHVs have not been addressed previously. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the kinetics of EEHV1 loads, and genotypic analysis was performed on EEHV1 DNA detected in various fluid samples obtained from five Asian elephants that survived detectable EEHV1 DNAemia on at least two separate occasions. In three elephants displaying clinical signs of illness, preclinical EEHV1 DNAemia was detectable, and peak whole-blood viral loads occurred 3-8 days after the onset of clinical signs. In two elephants with EEHV1 DNAemia that persisted for 7-21 days, no clinical signs of illness were observed. Detection of EEHV1 DNA in trunk washes peaked approximately 21 days after DNAemia, and viral genotypes detected during DNAemia matched those detected in subsequent trunk washes from the same elephant. In each of the five elephants, two distinct EEHV1 genotypes were identified in whole blood and trunk washes at different time points. In each case, these genotypes represented both an EEHV1A and an EEHV1B subtype. These data suggest that knowledge of viral loads could be useful for the management of elephants before or during clinical illness. Furthermore, sequential infection with both EEHV1 subtypes occurs in Asian elephants, suggesting that they do not elicit cross-protective sterilizing immunity. These data will be useful to individuals involved in the husbandry and clinical care of Asian elephants. Copyright 2013 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Atkins L.,Baylor College of Medicine | Zong J.-C.,Viral Oncology Program | Tan J.,Baylor College of Medicine | Mejia A.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause acute hemorrhagic disease with high mortality rates in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Recently, a new EEHV type known as EEHV5 has been described, but its prevalence and clinical significance remain unknown. In this report, an outbreak of EEHV5 infection in a herd of captive Asian elephants in a zoo was characterized. In February 2011, a 42-yr-old wild-born female Asian elephant presented with bilaterally swollen temporal glands, oral mucosal hyperemia, vesicles on the tongue, and generalized lethargy. The elephant had a leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. She was treated with flunixin meglumine, famciclovir, and fluids. Clinical signs of illness resolved gradually over 2 wk, and the white blood cell count and platelets rebounded to higher-than-normal values. EEHV5 viremia was detectable starting 1 wk before presentation and peaked at the onset of clinical illness. EEHV5 shedding in trunk secretions peaked after viremia resolved and continued for more than 2 mo. EEHV5 trunk shedding from a female herd mate without any detectable viremia was detected prior to onset of clinical disease in the 42-yr-old elephant, indicating reactivation rather than primary infection in this elephant. Subsequent EEHV5 viremia and trunk shedding was documented in the other five elephants in the herd, who remained asymptomatic, except for 1 day of temporal gland swelling in an otherwise-healthy 1-yr-old calf. Unexpectedly, the two elephants most recently introduced into the herd 40 mo previously shed a distinctive EEHV5 strain from that seen in the other five elephants. This is the first report to document the kinetics of EEHV5 infection in captive Asian elephants and to provide evidence that this virus can cause illness in some animals. Copyright 2013 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

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