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Kading R.C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Reiche A.S.G.,University of Maryland University College | Morales-Betoulle M.E.,Viral and Zoonotic Diseases Research Program | Komar N.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

The selection of vertebrate hosts by Culex mosquitoes relative to West Nile virus (WNV) transmission in neotropical countries such as Guatemala is not described. This study determined the feeding patterns of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus and estimated the relative contribution of two common and frequently infected wild bird species, Turdus grayi and Quiscalus mexicanus, to WNV transmission. Engorged mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban habitats after the dry and wet seasons in the Department of Izabal in 2007. Host selection by Cx. nigripalpus varied significantly between urban and rural habitats. Both Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus fed predominantly on chickens and other domestic animals. Blood meals from wild birds were rare, accounting for 1.1% of blood meals identified from Cx. quinquefasciatus and 6.5% of blood meals from Cx. nigripalpus. Transmission of WNV by these two mosquito species may be dampened by extensive feeding on reservoir-incompetent hosts. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Gerloff N.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Jones J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Simpson N.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Balish A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian). The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring.

Shafik C.F.,Viral and Zoonotic Diseases Research Program | Mohareb E.W.,Viral and Zoonotic Diseases Research Program | Youssef F.G.,Viral and Zoonotic Diseases Research Program
Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2011

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children worldwide. Early detection of RSV is critical to initiate proper care. Two methods, the direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and the real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-RT-PCR), that are used for RSV detection were compared. A total of 451 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children 5 years of age or less were tested for RSV using both methods. The overall prevalence rate of the RSV among the children was 23.7% with a significantly higher prevalence among children under the age of 6 months of age when compared to other age groups. The sensitivity of DFA in comparison to rt-RT-PCR was highest (86%) during the first 3 days of symptoms onset and decreased gradually till it reached 65% after the first week. The specificity of DFA in comparison to rt-RT-PCR ranged between 99 and 100% irrespective of the date of collection. We concluded that, although the rt-RT-PCR is more sensitive for RSV detection, the DFA offers a reliable point-of-care alternative detection method especially during the first few days of illness. © 2011 Caroline F. Shafik et al.

Balish A.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Davis C.T.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Saad M.D.,Viral and Zoonotic Diseases Research Program | El-Sayed N.,Ministry of Health and Population | And 16 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2010

Highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1) has diverged antigenically and genetically since its initial detection in Asia in 1997. Viruses belonging to clade 2.2 in particular have been reported in numerous countries with the majority occurring in Egypt. Previous reports identified antigenic similarities between viruses belonging to clade 2.2. However, poultry and human viruses isolated in northern Egypt during 2007 and 2008 were found to be antigenically distinct from other clade 2.2 viruses from this country. Genetic analysis of the hemagglutinin revealed a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid divergence. The antigenic changes in Egyptian viruses isolated during 2007-08 necessitated that two of these strains be considered as potential H5N1 pre-pandemic vaccine candidates. © 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

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