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Mathur P.K.,Institute for Pig Genetics B.V. | ten Napel J.,Animal Breeding and Genomics Center | Bloemhof S.,Institute for Pig Genetics B.V. | Heres L.,VION Food Group | And 2 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2012

A system for sensory evaluation of boar taint was used to evaluate boar taint in fat samples from 6574 entire males. The term "human nose scoring" has been used to describe this system. The samples from each boar were heated with a hot iron and three panelists assigned scores of 0 to 4. The reproducibility of HNS ranged from 0.19 to 0.32 reflecting natural variation in the ability of human beings to detect different odors. The correlations of HNS with androstenone ranged from 0.22 to 0.52, while those with skatole ranged from 0.31 to 0.89, suggesting that skatole is a better predictor of boar taint. Considering (1) the relationship of HNS with the boar taint compounds, (2) the ability of HNS to capture variation not accounted for by the boar taint compounds, (3) low estimation costs and (4) low time requirements, HNS can be used in large scale evaluations of boar taint. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kapper C.,CCL Nutricontrol | Kapper C.,VION Food Group | Klont R.E.,VION Food Group | Verdonk J.M.A.J.,CCL Nutricontrol | And 3 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2012

Longissimus dorsi samples (685) collected at four processing plants were used to develop prediction equations for meat quality with near infrared spectroscopy. Equations with R 2>0.70 and residual prediction deviation (RPD)≥2.0 were considered as applicable for screening. One production plant showed R 2 0.76 and RPD 2.05, other plants showed R 2<0.70 and RPD<2.0 for drip loss %. RPD values were ≤2.05 for drip loss%, for colour L *≤1.82 and pH ultimate (pHu)≤1.57. Samples were grouped for drip loss%; superior (<2.0%), moderate (2-4%), inferior (>4.0%). 64% from the superior group and 56% from the inferior group were predicted correctly. One equation could be used for screening drip loss %. Best prediction equation for L * did not meet the requirements (R 2 0.70 and RPD 1.82). pHu equation could not be used. Results suggest that prediction equations can be used for screening drip loss %. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kapper C.,CCL Nutricontrol | Kapper C.,VION Food Group | Klont R.E.,VION Food Group | Verdonk J.M.A.J.,CCL Nutricontrol | And 2 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2012

The objective was to study prediction of pork quality by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology in the laboratory. A total of 131 commercial pork loin samples were measured with NIRS. Predictive equations were developed for drip loss %, colour L *, a *, b * and pH ultimate (pHu). Equations with R 2>0.70 and residual prediction deviation (RPD)≥1.9 were considered as applicable to predict pork quality. For drip loss% the prediction equation was developed (R 2 0.73, RPD 1.9) and 76% of those grouped superior and inferior samples were predicted within the groups. For colour L *, test-set samples were predicted with R 2 0.75, RPD 2.0, colour a * R 2 0.51, RPD 1.4, colour b * R 2 0.55, RPD 1.5 and pHu R 2 0.36, RPD 1.3. It is concluded that NIRS prediction equations could be developed to predict drip loss% and L *, of pork samples. NIRS equations for colour a *, b * and pHu were not applicable for the prediction of pork quality on commercially slaughtered pigs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

van Duijkeren E.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Hengeveld P.D.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Albers M.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Pluister G.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2014

In the Netherlands, livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has been found in pigs, veal calves, horses and poultry. However, little is known about its prevalence in healthy dairy cattle. Recently, a new mec gene, called mecC, has been found in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates from humans and animals in several countries. The objective of our pilot study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA (mecA and mecC) in dairy cows at a large slaughterhouse. Samples from the skin between the udder and hind leg were taken from 411 cows. The samples were incubated in Mueller-Hinton enrichment broth with 6.5% NaCl, followed by selective enrichment and plated onto Columbia agar with 5% sheep blood, Brilliance MRSA 2 agar and Baird-Parker agar. Suspected colonies were tested by PCR for a S. aureus specific DNA fragment, the mecA and mecC genes and the Panton-Valentine leucotoxin (PVL) genes. All MRSA isolates and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were typed by spa typing and MLVA typing. Sixteen of 411 (3.9%) cows, all originating from different farms, were found to be MRSA positive and this prevalence is lower than in Dutch pigs, veal calves and broilers. All MRSA isolates belonging to livestock-associated MLVA complex 398, were PVL-negative and spa type t011 predominated. MSSA isolates (n= 39) were of many different MLVA types and spa type t543 was found most often. Four MSSA isolates belonging to MLVA clonal complex 398 and spa types t011 (n= 2), t108 and t034 were isolated from different MRSA-negative animals. In conclusion, the prevalence of MRSA in dairy cows was low and isolates carrying the mecC gene were not found, indicating that it is absent or has a low prevalence (<0.73%) in Dutch dairy cows. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Bekaert K.M.,Ghent University | Bekaert K.M.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Aluwe M.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Vanhaecke L.,Ghent University | And 5 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2013

No automated detection system for boar taint detection is currently available, thus boar taint at the slaughterline can currently only be assessed using the singeing method (olfactory scoring). This study compares several heating methods (microwave, soldering iron and pyropen) and evaluates the effect of habituation, cleaning the soldering iron, singeing the fat twice in the same place, and variations in the technical procedures. All methods seem to be suitable for detecting boar taint but the choice of heating method for sensory scoring of boar taint depends on habituation of the trained assessor and specific conditions applied. The pyropen seems to be most suitable because it does not contact the fat and is easy to handle (wireless). Finally, the intensity score may also be influenced by: contamination from not cleaning the soldering iron, singeing the fat twice in the same place, and the effect of habituation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Gilbert M.,University Utrecht | Bos M.E.H.,University Utrecht | Duim B.,University Utrecht | Urlings B.A.P.,VION Food Group | And 5 more authors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2012

Objectives: To assess livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) carriage among workers in pig slaughterhouses and assess associated risk factors, including occupational exposure to LA-MRSA. Methods: A cross-sectional study in three Dutch pig slaughterhouses was undertaken. Nasal swabs of participants were taken. Nasal swabs and surface wipes, air and glove samples were screened for presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA was quantitatively determined on gloves and in air samples by culturing and real-time PCR. Results: 11 of 341 (3.2%) participants were identified as nasal MRSA carriers. MRSA-positive workers were predominantly found at the start of the slaughter process. Major risk factors for carriage were working in the lairage and working in the scalding and dehairing area. Most nasal isolates (73%) belonged to the LA-MRSA clone ST398. MRSA ST398-positive environmental samples were found throughout the slaughter process. A clear decrease was seen along the slaughterline in the number of MRSA-positive samples and in the MRSA amount per sample. Conclusions: This study showed that working in the lairage area or scalding and dehairing area were the major risk factors for MRSA carriage in pig slaughterhouse workers, while the overall prevalence of MRSA carriage is low. Occupational exposure to MRSA decreased along the slaughterline, and the risk of carriage showed a parallel decrease.

Heres L.,VION Food Group | Hoogenboom R.,Wageningen University | Herbes R.,Food and Consumer Products Safety Authority VWA | Traag W.,Wageningen University | And 2 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

High levels of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) in pork were discovered in France and the Netherlands at the end of 2008. The contamination was rapidly traced back to a feed stock in the Republic of Ireland (RoI). Burning oil, used for the drying of bakery waste, appeared to be contaminated with PCBs. Consequently, very high levels up to 500 pgTEQg -1 fat were found in pork. The congener pattern clearly pointed to PCB-oil as a source, but the ratio between the non-dioxin-like indicator PCBs (PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 152 and 180) and PCDD/Fs was much lower than observed during the Belgian incident, thereby limiting the suitability of indicator PCBs as a marker for the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. This paper describes the tracking and tracing of the incident, the public-private cooperation, the surveillance activities and its results. A major lesson to be learned from this incident is the importance of good private food safety systems. In this incident, it was the private surveillance systems that identified the origin of contamination within 10 days after the first signal of increased dioxin levels in a product. On the other hand, retrospective analyses showed that signals were missed that could have led to an earlier detection of the incident and the source. Above all, the incident would not have occurred when food safety assurance systems had been effectively implemented in the involved feed chain. It is discussed that besides primary responsibility for effective private food safety systems, the competent authorities have to supervise whether the food safety procedures are capable of coping with these kinds of complex food safety issues, while private food companies need to implement the law, and public authorities should supervise and enforce them. Finally, it is discussed whether the health risks derived from consumption of the contaminated batches of meat may have been underestimated during the incident due to the unusually high intake of dioxins. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Murani E.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Ponsuksili S.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | D'Eath R.B.,Sustainable Livestock Systems | Turner S.P.,Sustainable Livestock Systems | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology | Year: 2011

To gain insight into the adrenal stress response, we analysed differential mRNA expression of genes associated with psychosocial stress in the pig (Sus scrofa domestica). Various levels of psychosocial stress were induced by mixing groups of unfamiliar pigs with different aggressiveness. We selected two experimental groups for comparison, each comprising eight animals, which differed significantly in aggressive behaviour and plasma cortisol levels. To identify differentially expressed genes, we compared the adrenal transcriptome of these two groups of pigs, using the Affymetrix GeneChip porcine Genome Array. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that psychosocial stress induced upregulation of transcripts enriched for functions associated with cholesterol accumulation and downregulation of transcripts enriched for functions associated with cell growth and death. These responses are similar to those induced by ACTH stimulation. Nevertheless, the majority of the differentially expressed genes were so far not described as ACTH responsive. Some, such as GAL and GALP, may have responded to sympathoadrenal stimulation. Several of the differentially expressed transcripts, such as AGT, are associated with processes modulating steroidogenic response of adrenocortical cells to ACTH. One of the most significant findings was upregulation of LOC100039095, comprising a precursor of the microRNA miR-202, pointing to a previously unrecognised layer of regulation of adrenal steroidogenesis by microRNA. Our study, performed under entirely physiological conditions, complements previous studies focusing either on a single adrenal tissue and/or on a single stimulus, and contributes to understanding of the fine-tuning of adrenal stress response. © 2011 Society for Endocrinology.

Pork quality (colour, drip loss/ water holding capacity - WHC, and electrical conductivity) of 947 Pietrain-sired slaughter pigs was determined at 4 different German slaughterhouses (A, B, C, and D) under normal slaughter conditions on 8 different slaughter days. The temperature- and pH-decline curves were determined for each of the 4 slaughterhouses. There was a wide variety in chilling and cooling regimes between the 4 slaughterhouses. The results confirm the importance of fast chilling for good pork quality by both reducing carcass temperature and slowing down the rate of pH fall. The best results were achieved at slaughterhouse B, which used a blast chilling procedure with an effective temperature of -14 °C for a period of 2 and a half hours after carcasses entered the cooler. This resulted in the lowest drip loss levels (2.13% ± 0.70) of a loin sample after 48 hours storage in a case ready package, and darker colour when compared to loin samples from slaughterhouse D, which used a conventio al cooling system (4.51% ± 1.91).

PubMed | University of Bonn, ELFI Analytik GbR, Vion Food Group, Tonnies Lebensmittel GmbH & Co. KG and University of Gottingen
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2016

This study analyzed odor-odor interactions of two malodorous volatile substances, androstenone and skatole, that may accumulate in fat and meat of uncastrated male (boar) pigs. Therefore, fat samples were collected from 1000+ entire male pig carcasses for sensory evaluation and quantification of boar taint compounds using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Each sample was sniffed by 10 trained assessors, resulting in 11000+ individual ratings, which were subjected to statistical analysis. Pearson correlations of chemical traits and sensory traits (panel average) were higher for skatole [r(1029) = 0.59; p < 0.001] than for androstenone [r(1029) = 0.44; p < 0.001]. Linear terms of androstenone and skatole as well as their interaction significantly (p < 0.05) contributed to perception of deviant smell (R(2) = 0.43). Standardized regression coefficients illustrate the higher importance of skatole ( = 0.68) than androstenone ( = 0.39). Interindividual differences in the responses of assessors to androstenone and skatole are confirmed. A new curved approach is suggested because it better accounts for the interaction of androstenone and skatole than the safe box approach. On the basis of these data, sorting strategies using instrumental measurements are discussed. An automated detection based on only skatole measurements is recommended because its performance is only slightly inferior to a sorting based on both androstenone and skatole. Sorting thresholds need to be calibrated against consumer acceptance though.

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