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Grygorczyk A.,University of Guelph | Lesschaeve I.,Vineland Research and Innovation Center | Corredig M.,University of Guelph | Duizer L.,University of Guelph
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2013

During development of a new product, it is important to understand the key attributes of importance to consumers. From a sensory perspective, it is not possible to determine this via conventional profiling where consumer information is not sought. The method examined in this study, which we will refer to as preferred attribute elicitation (PAE), attempts to derive this information from an untrained panel of consumers by asking the group of panelists to agree on a set of attributes which they consider important. This approach also aids in reducing the amount of ambiguity in interpreting terms selected by consumers as all panelists must agree to the terms and feel capable of rating them. The employment of the PAE method in the food industry has so far been limited, therefore, there exists a need to study the strengths and weaknesses of the PAE method in comparison to descriptive analysis to better understand its place among sensory analysis methodologies. The method was effective for extracting key sensory properties of yogurts and panelists were capable of characterizing yogurts in a meaningful way. There is a need to continue assessment of the technique, particularly with more complex food systems. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Gunnaiah R.,McGill University | Kushalappa A.C.,McGill University | Duggavathi R.,McGill University | Fox S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Somers D.J.,Vineland Research and Innovation Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Resistance in plants to pathogen attack can be qualitative or quantitative. For the latter, hundreds of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified, but the mechanisms of resistance are largely unknown. Integrated non-target metabolomics and proteomics, using high resolution hybrid mass spectrometry, were applied to identify the mechanisms of resistance governed by the fusarium head blight resistance locus, Fhb1, in the near isogenic lines derived from wheat genotype Nyubai. Findings: The metabolomic and proteomic profiles were compared between the near isogenic lines (NIL) with resistant and susceptible alleles of Fhb1 upon F. graminearum or mock-inoculation. The resistance-related metabolites and proteins identified were mapped to metabolic pathways. Metabolites of the shunt phenylpropanoid pathway such as hydroxycinnamic acid amides, phenolic glucosides and flavonoids were induced only in the resistant NIL, or induced at higher abundances in resistant than in susceptible NIL, following pathogen inoculation. The identities of these metabolites were confirmed, with fragmentation patterns, using the high resolution LC-LTQ-Orbitrap. Concurrently, the enzymes of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis such as cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase, flavonoid O-methyltransferase, agmatine coumaroyltransferase and peroxidase were also up-regulated. Increased cell wall thickening due to deposition of hydroxycinnamic acid amides and flavonoids was confirmed by histo-chemical localization of the metabolites using confocal microscopy. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that the resistance in Fhb1 derived from the wheat genotype Nyubai is mainly associated with cell wall thickening due to deposition of hydroxycinnamic acid amides, phenolic glucosides and flavonoids, but not with the conversion of deoxynivalenol to less toxic deoxynivalenol 3-O-glucoside. © 2012 Gunnaiah et al. Source


Saito T.,Vineland Research and Innovation Center | Bjornson S.,Saint Marys University, Halifax
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2013

Convergent lady beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville are host to the braconid endoparasitoid, Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank) and the microsporidian pathogen, Tubulinosema hippodamiae. The interrelationship between the endoparasitoid and the pathogen in H. convergens adults under laboratory conditions was examined by quantifying the effect of microsporidiosis on D. coccinellae development and host preference. Uninfected wasps were provided either uninfected or T. hippodamiae-infected beetles as hosts and the development of their progeny was observed over 30. days. The duration of endoparasitoid development from egg deposition in the host until adult eclosion for D. coccinellae did not differ significantly, regardless of the infection status of the host beetle. All wasp progeny that developed within, and emerged from, T. hippodamiae-infected beetles were infected with the microsporidian pathogen (n=48; 100% transmission). Infected D. coccinellae adults were also provided either uninfected or T. hippodamiae infected host beetles so that the development of their progeny could be assessed over 30. days. Endoparasitoid development did not differ significantly; however, a significantly greater proportion of beetles stung by microsporidia-infected wasps did not contain an endoparasitoid larva when dissected at the end of the 30-day trial when compared to those stung by uninfected wasps. This suggests that the pathogen may reduce wasp fecundity or egg viability. Examination of paraffin-embedded D. coccinellae adult tissues revealed an extensive microsporidian infection throughout all major organs and tissues with exception of the ovary. During host choice trials, uninfected and microsporidia-infected D. coccinellae adults pursued, took an ovipositional stance, and attacked uninfected beetles more often than microsporidia-infected hosts but these observations did not differ significantly (P> 0.05). © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


El-Sharkawy I.,Vineland Research and Innovation Center | Mila I.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bouzayen M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Jayasankar S.,University of Guelph
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2010

Germin-like proteins (GLPs) have several proposed roles in plant development and defence. Two novel genes (Ps-GLP1 and 2) encoding germin-like protein were isolated from plum (Prunus salicina). Their regulation was studied throughout fruit development and during ripening of early and late cultivars. These two genes exhibited similar expression patterns throughout the various stages of fruit development excluding two important stages, pit hardening (S2) and fruit ripening (S4). During fruit development until the ripening phase, the accumulation of both Ps-GLPs is related to the evolution of auxin. However, during the S2 stage only Ps-GLP1 is induced and this could putatively be in a H2O2-dependent manner. On the other hand, the diversity in the Ps-GLPs accumulation profile during the ripening process seems to be putatively due to the variability of endogenous auxin levels among the two plum cultivars, which consequently change the levels of autocatalytic ethylene available for the fruit to co-ordinate ripening. The effect of auxin on stimulating ethylene production and in regulating Ps-GLPs transcripts was also investigated. These data, supported by their localization in the extracellular matrix, suggest that auxin is somehow involved in the regulation of both transcripts throughout fruit development and ripening. © 2010 The Author(s). Source


Fu Y.-B.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Somers D.J.,Vineland Research and Innovation Center
Euphytica | Year: 2011

Genetic impacts under selective breeding of agricultural crops have been frequently investigated with molecular tools, but inadequate attention has been paid to assess genetic changes under long-term genetic improvement of plant traits. Here we analyzed allelic changes with respect to wheat trait improvement in 78 Canadian hard red spring wheat cultivars released from 1845 to 2004 and screened with 370 mapped SSR markers. The improvements in quality, maturity, yield, disease, stem rust, leaf rust, sawfly resistance, and agronomy were considered. A total of 154 (out of 370) loci with significant allelic changes across 21 chromosomes were detected in the 78 wheat cultivars separated into improved versus non-improved groups for eight traits. The number of significant loci for improving a trait ranged from four for quality to 68 for yield and averaged 35. Many more loci with significant allelic reduction for improving a trait were detected than those with significant allelic increase. Selection for early maturity introduced more alleles, but improving the other traits purged more alleles. Significantly lower numbers of unique alleles were found in the cultivars with improved traits. The distributions of unique allele counts also varied greatly across the 21 chromosomes with respect to trait improvement. Significant SSR variation between two cultivar groups was observed for improvement in seven traits, but not in stem rust. The proportional SSR variation residing between two groups ranged from 0. 014 to 0. 118. The proportional SSR variations within the improved cultivar groups consistently were much lower than those within the non-improved groups. These findings clearly demonstrate the association between allelic changes and wheat trait improvements and are useful for understanding the genetic modification of the wheat genome by long-term wheat breeding. © 2010 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Source

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