Vincent Van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry

Venray, Netherlands

Vincent Van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry

Venray, Netherlands
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Oudman E.,University Utrecht | Oudman E.,Rijnmond Care Group | Van der Stigchel S.,University Utrecht | Wester A.J.,Vincent Van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry | And 3 more authors.
Neuropsychologia | Year: 2011

Implicit contextual learning is the ability to acquire contextual information from our surroundings without conscious awareness. Such contextual information facilitates the localization of objects in space. In a typical implicit contextual learning paradigm, subjects need to find a target among a number of distractors during visual search. Some of the configurations of stimuli are repeated during the experiment resulting in faster responses than for novel configurations, without subjects being aware of their repetition. Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) have been found to show devastating explicit spatial amnesia. Less is know about their implicit spatial memory abilities. The aim of the present research was to examine whether implicit contextual learning is intact in KS. Therefore, eighteen KS patients and twenty-two age-IQ- and education-matched controls performed the Implicit Contextual Learning task and a paradigm intended to assess explicit, spatial working memory, i.e. the Box task. Intact implicit contextual learning was observed in both the control group and the KS patients. In turn KS patients did have markedly lower explicit spatial working memory scores. The implicit learning effect was not related to the spatial working memory scores. Together these results clearly suggest that implicit and explicit spatial memory have a different neurocognitive basis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Vissers C.T.W.M.,Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry | Vissers C.T.W.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Virgillito D.,University of Bologna | Fitzgerald D.A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 4 more authors.
Neuropsychologia | Year: 2010

In several domains of psychology it has been shown that mood influences the way in which we process information. So far, little is known about the relation between mood and processes of language comprehension. In the present study we explore, whether, and if so how, mood affects the processing of syntactic anomalies in real time by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). To this aim we compared the P600 effect to subject-verb agreement errors relative to correct sentences while ERPs were recorded and mood was manipulated by presenting happy or sad film clips. The prediction was that if emotional state affects processes of language comprehension this should be reflected by an interaction between mood and P600. The results were as follows: first, the mood induction procedure was effective: participants were happier after watching happy film clips and sadder after watching sad film clips compared to baseline. Second, for P600 a mood by syntactic correctness interaction was obtained for the midline and lateral electrodes. The interaction reflected a broadly distributed P600 effect for the happy mood condition and a strong reduction in P600 effect for the sad mood condition. Correlation analyses confirmed that the observed changes in P600 effect were accompanied by reliable changes in emotional state. The present ERP findings demonstrate that mood interacts with processes of language comprehension. Three possible explanations for the mood by syntactic correctness interaction are discussed; one in terms of syntactic processing, one in terms of heuristic processing, and one in terms of more general factors like attention and/or motivation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Vissers C.T.W.M.,Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry | Vissers C.T.W.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Chwilla U.G.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Egger J.I.M.,Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry | And 2 more authors.
Neuropsychologia | Year: 2013

Little is known about the relationship between language and emotion. Vissers et al. (2010) investigated the effects of mood on the processing of syntactic violations, as indexed by P600. An interaction was observed between mood and syntactic correctness for which three explanations were offered: one in terms of syntactic processing, one in terms of heuristic processing, and one in terms of more general factors like attention and/or motivation. In this experiment, we further determined the locus of the effects of emotional state on language comprehension by investigating the effects of mood on the processing of semantic reversal anomalies (e.g., "the cat that fled from the mice"), in which heuristics play a key role. The main findings were as follows. The mood induction was effective: participants were happier after watching happy film clips and sadder after watching sad film clips compared to baseline. For P600, a mood by semantic plausibility interaction was obtained reflecting a broadly distributed P600 effect for the happy mood vs. absence of a P600 for the sad mood condition. Correlation analyses confirmed that changes in P600 in happy mood were accompanied by changes in emotional state. Given that semantic reversal anomalies are syntactically unambiguous, the P600 modulation by mood cannot be explained by syntactic factors. The semantic plausibility by mood interaction can be accounted for in terms of (1) heuristic processing (stronger reliance on a good enough representation of the input in happy mood than sad mood), and/or (2) more general factors like attention (e.g., more attention to semantic reversals in happy mood than sad mood). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


El Haj M.,Montpellier University | El Haj M.,University of North of France | Allain P.,University of Nantes | Allain P.,Angers University Hospital Center | And 2 more authors.
Translational Neuroscience | Year: 2014

The ability to remember the destination to whom a piece of information has been addressed (e.g., did I tell you about the weekend?) has been labelled destination memory. Although this topic has been relatively scarcely studied, recent studies support the notion that destination recall can be the subject of important distortions in healthy younger and older adults and in individuals with Alzheimer's disease. This research also links destination recall to several cognitive domains such as episodic memory, executive function, and self-referential processes (e.g., did I tell you about the weekend?). The present review aims to assemble these findings into a comprehensive framework and shed light onto potential neuroanatomical underpinnings of destination memory, thus providing a promising venue for future exploration and research. © 2014 Versita and Springer-Verlag.


Kessels R.P.C.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Kessels R.P.C.,Vincent Van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry | Montagne B.,Treatment Center for Personality Disorders | Hendriks A.W.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neuropsychology | Year: 2014

The ability to recognize and label emotional facial expressions is an important aspect of social cognition. However, existing paradigms to examine this ability present only static facial expressions, suffer from ceiling effects or have limited or no norms. A computerized test, the Emotion Recognition Task (ERT), was developed to overcome these difficulties. In this study, we examined the effects of age, sex, and intellectual ability on emotion perception using the ERT. In this test, emotional facial expressions are presented as morphs gradually expressing one of the six basic emotions from neutral to four levels of intensity (40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). The task was administered in 373 healthy participants aged 8-75. In children aged 8-17, only small developmental effects were found for the emotions anger and happiness, in contrast to adults who showed age-related decline on anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. Sex differences were present predominantly in the adult participants. IQ only minimally affected the perception of disgust in the children, while years of education were correlated with all emotions but surprise and disgust in the adult participants. A regression-based approach was adopted to present age- and education- or IQ-adjusted normative data for use in clinical practice. Previous studies using the ERT have demonstrated selective impairments on specific emotions in a variety of psychiatric, neurologic, or neurodegenerative patient groups, making the ERT a valuable addition to existing paradigms for the assessment of emotion perception. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.


Michielsen L.A.,Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry | van der Heijden F.M.M.A.,Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry | Janssen P.K.C.,VieCuri Medical Center | Kuijpers H.J.H.,Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment | Year: 2014

Background: The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the relationship between psychotropic medication dosage and birth outcomes. Methods: A total of 136 women were enrolled, who had an active mental disorder, were taking medication to prevent a relapse, or had a history of postpartum depression or psychosis. Medication use was evaluated for the three trimesters and during labor. Based on the defined daily dose, medication use was classified into three groups. Primary outcome variables included the infant gestational age at birth, birth weight, and Apgar scores at one and 5 minutes. Results: Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of Apgar score ≤7 at and 5 minutes in women taking psychotropic drugs as compared with the group taking no medication, respectively (16.3% versus 0.0%, P=0.01). There was no significant difference between the two groups in Apgar score at one minute or in gestational age and birth weight. The results showed no significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, or Apgar scores for a low-intermediate or high dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and for a low or intermediate dose of an antipsychotic. Conclusion: This study does not indicate a relationship between doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics and adverse neonatal outcomes. © 2014 Michielsen et al.


Verhoeven W.M.A.,Vincent Van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry | Verhoeven W.M.A.,Erasmus Medical Center | Egger J.I.M.,Vincent Van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry | Egger J.I.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Pharmacopsychiatry | Year: 2015

Introduction: This study includes 28 patients with genetically proven 22q11.2 deletion syndrome referred for treatment-resistant psychoses and aims at the identification of a suitable pharmacological treatment strategy. Methods: Based on standardized diagnostic procedures, key psychiatric symptoms and cognitive status were assessed. Also, data about previous diagnostic vignettes as well as the history of psychotropic medication and medical conditions were collected. Finally, the effect of the subsequent treatment regimen was periodically re-assessed. Results: Since psychotic symptoms had been shown to be non-responsive to conventional antipsychotics including risperidone, treatment with either clozapine or quetiapine was started. In 21 patients, a substantial reduction of psychotic symptoms was achieved with either one, and in 3-quarters of this group remission was attained over a longer follow-up period. In a significant number of patients, valproic acid was added either for mood stabilizing purposes or to avoid epileptic side effects of clozapine. Discussion: Treatment of psychotic symptoms in patients with 22q11DS with the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine or clozapine in combination with the mood-stabilizing anticonvulsant valproic acid, appears likely to be more effective than with other psychotropic compounds.


Gallagher P.,Northumbria University | Gray J.M.,Northumbria University | Kessels R.P.C.,Donders Institute for Brain | Kessels R.P.C.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Kessels R.P.C.,Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2015

Background Previous studies of neurocognitive performance in bipolar disorder (BD) have demonstrated impairments in visuo-spatial memory. The aim of the present study was to use an object-location memory (OLM) paradigm to assess specific, dissociable processes in visuo-spatial memory and examine their relationship with broader neurocognitive performance. Method Fifty participants (25 patients with BD in a current depressive episode and 25 matched healthy controls) completed the OLM paradigm which assessed three different aspects of visuo-spatial memory: positional memory, object-location binding, and a combined process. Secondary neurocognitive measures of visuo-spatial memory, verbal memory, attention and executive function were also administered. Results BD patients were significantly impaired on all three OLM processes, with the largest effect in exact positional memory (d=1.18, p<0.0001). General deficits were also found across the secondary neurocognitive measures. Using hierarchical regression, verbal learning was found to explain significant variance on the OLM measures where object-identity was present (the object-location binding and combined processes) and accounted for the group difference. The group difference in precise positional memory remained intact. Conclusions This study demonstrates that patients with bipolar depression manifest deficits in visuo-spatial memory, with substantial impairment in fine-grain, positional memory. The differential profile of processes underpinning the visuo-spatial memory impairment suggests a form of 'cognitive scaffolding', whereby performance on some measures can be supported by verbal memory. These results have important implications for our understanding of the functional cognitive architecture of mood disorder. © Cambridge University Press 2014.


Verhoeven W.M.A.,Vincent Van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry | Verhoeven W.M.A.,Erasmus Medical Center | Kleefstra T.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Egger J.I.M.,Vincent Van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry | Egger J.I.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics | Year: 2010

The 9q Subtelomeric Deletion Syndrome (9qSTDS) is clinically characterized by mental retardation, childhood hypotonia, and facial dysmorphisms. Haploinsufficiency of the EHMT1 gene has been demonstrated to be responsible for its core phenotype. In a significant number of patients behavioral abnormalities like aggression, impulsivity, and chaotic behaviors are present as well as epileptic phenomena. Reports about the developmental, behavioral, and neuropsychiatric aspects of 9qSTDS are scarce and mostly limited to young patients only. In this report, the behavioral and neuropsychiatric characteristics of one male and one female middle-aged patient are described in whom the genetic diagnosis, interstitial and telomeric 9q deletion, respectively, was established recently. In both patients a remarkable sleep disturbance, characterized by frequent awakenings and daytime sleepiness, was present as well as a prominent apathy syndrome. The observedmotor signs such as rigid flexure of the arms and finger stereotypies persisted over a period of many years and could therefore not be viewed as symptoms of catatonia. It is concluded that the proposed behavioral phenotype of 9qSTDS comprises at least an erratic sleep pattern and an enduring severe apathy. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Berry C.J.,University of Plymouth | Kessels R.P.C.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Kessels R.P.C.,Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry | Wester A.J.,Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry | Shanks D.R.,University College London
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2014

We challenge the claim that there are distinct neural systems for explicit and implicit memory by demonstrating that a formal single- system model predicts the pattern of recognition memory (explicit) and repetition priming (implicit) in amnesia. In the current investigation, human participants with amnesia categorized pictures of objects at study and then, at test, identified fragmented versions of studied (old) and nonstudied (new) objects (providing a measure of priming), and made a recognition memory judgment (old vs new) for each object. Numerous results in the amnesic patients were predicted in advance by the single-system model, as follows: (1) deficits in recognition memory and priming were evident relative to a control group; (2) items judged as old were identified at greater levels of fragmentation than items judged new, regardless of whether the items were actually old or new; and (3) the magnitude of the priming effect (the identification advantage for old vs new items) overall was greater than that of items judged new. Model evidence measures also favored the single-system model over two formal multiple-systems models. The findings support the single-system model, which explains the pattern of recognition and priming in amnesia primarily as a reduction in the strength of a single dimension of memory strength, rather than a selective explicit memory system deficit. © 2014 the authors.

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