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Lahon K.,Mahatma Gandhi Institute | Bairagi K.K.,Vinayaka Missions Medical College | Chaturvedi R.K.,SAIMS
Medico-Legal Update | Year: 2010

Ethics defines right and wrong behaviour in a civil society and comes from within. It is different from law which regulates the external behaviour. Clinical research is research involving human beings and is a multi-million dollar industry today. It is regulated by international guidelines on the conduct of clinical trials called ICH GCP guidelines, which direct that clinical trials on human subjects should be performed in an ethical manner. However, guidelines are only advisory in most cases and are yet to have the force of law in many countries. This is particularly relevant due to the alarming rise of ethical violations by pharmaceutical companies and research organizations wherein the safety and rights of clinical trial participants are jeopardized in their pursuit of commercial and scientific gains. Stronger regulatory framework, registration of trials and ethics committees, and above all, stronger enforcement of laws in such cases are the need of the hour. Source


Lahon K.,Mahatma Gandhi Institute | Bairagi K.K.,Vinayaka Missions Medical College | Chaturvedi R.K.,SAIMS
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2012

Counterfeit or fake medicines are drugs which are previously expired, fraudulently diluted, adulterated, substituted, completely misrepresented, or sold with a false brand name. They constitute 10% of the global drug market and mostly originate in the developing world, where regulatory and enforcement measures are weakest. Lack of expected clinical benefit, direct harm and emergence of drug resistance can occur due to counterfeit medicines. WHO, along with national and international organizations are taking legislative, regulatory, enforcement, technological and quality assurance initiatives to prevent and detect counterfeit medicines, besides raising awareness about the issue. However, despite making good progress, the threat looms large for the consumer as long as he is not empowered to differentiate between genuine and counterfeit medicines. Source


Kadalmani B.,Bharathidasan University | Saravana Kumar M.,Vinayaka Missions Medical College | Revathi P.,SRM University | Prakash Shyam K.,Bharathidasan University
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2011

Calcium ions have been considered as a serious contender for the development of various types of ulcers. Calcium ion influx seems to play an essential role in the stimulationsecretion coupling in mammalian oxyntic cells, an effect that can be inhibited by the calcium channel blockers. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a class of drugs and natural substances that disrupt the calcium (Ca2+) conduction of calcium channels, the present study aims to evaluate comparative effect of Verapamil, Nifedipine, Diltiazem and Ranitidine against gastric ulcers induced in rats. The study was carried out in Sixty Wistar male albino rats (180-220 g) as two phase simultaneous study, one as acute and the other evaluated chronic effect. Gastric Ulcer was induced using aspirin (200 mg/kg) body weight (b.w) and treated orally using Verapamil (40mg/kg b.w) Nifedipine (40mg/kg b.w), Diltiazem (60mg/kg b.w) and Inj. Ranitidine 50mg/kg b.w intraperitoneally. The rats were anaesthetised under ether; Ulcer Pulse and Index were calculated.The results of comparison indicate that Nifedipine had shown but highly significant ulcer protective effect in both acute and chronic studies, than Verapamil, Diltiazem and Ranitidine. Source


Divyashanthi C.M.,Vinayaka Missions Medical College | Manivannan E.,Salem College
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2014

Corticosteroids remain the most important and frequently prescribed drugs for cutaneous diseases. This study is an effort to assess the drug prescribing patterns of corticosteroids for various skin diseases, to analyse the rationale behind and also to affirm the physicians' adherence to dosages and formulations in accordance with the recent guidelines.A prospective analysis of 291 in-patients admitted in the department of Dermatology, Karaikal over a period of one year (January2013-December2013) was carried out to ascertain the pattern of usage of corticosteroids for various dermatological diseases in terms of its potency, frequency, duration and routes of administration. The results were expressed in averages, ratios and proportions.Out of the total 291 prescriptions scrutinized, 60.48% were male and 39.51% were female. The average number of drugs per prescription was 6.37 ± 2.06.The topical preparations prescribed were highly potent steroids like Clobetasol (33.33%), followed by moderately potent like Mometasone (28.24%) and low potent Desonide (14.69%).The various formulations utilized were Lotions (48.02%),followed by creams(30.51%),ointments (14.68%) and paste (6.78%). Oral corticosteroids were prescribed for 77 patients (26.46%), the most of which were for contact dermatitis (32.5%).Among the parenteral corticosteroids prescribed for 14 patients(4.81%) the maximum prescribed were for Eczema (28.56%).Dexamethasone was the only parenteral corticosteroid (4.81%) prescribed as injection.The prescribing pattern of corticosteroids by the Dermatologists was analyzed to appraise the conformity with the guidelines. The usage of steroids through topical, oral and parenteral routes was compliant with the guidelines. Source


Christina A.S.,University | Jayasingh C.M.S.,Vinayaka Missions Medical College
Biomedicine (India) | Year: 2013

Introduction: Proinflammatory cytokines promote cancer progression. Aim: The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of two proinflammatory cytokines namely, Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) in breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This study comprises of 75 breast cancer patients and 25 healthy subjects. They were categorized into three groups, based on the disease stage, age and menopausal status. Serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were estimated by quantitative sandwich ELISA method. Results: Significantly elevated concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were observed in breast cancer patients when compared with healthy subjects. Furthermore, elevated concentrations were seen with advancement of disease. No association has been found with age and menopausal status. Conclusion: This clearly indicates their positive role in breast cancer progression. Source

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