Vimala College

Trichūr, India

Vimala College

Trichūr, India
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Kuruvilla K.,Vimala College | Maria K.J.A.,Vimala College
International Journal of Zoological Research | Year: 2017

Background: Kole wetland, a highly productive habitat forms a unique ecosystem that supports large number of birds. Palakkal Kole wetland, Thrissur, which is part of Vembanad Kole is a Ramsar site and this study identifies the species richness and composition of avian fauna of this wetland. Materials and Methods: Bird survey was done by line transect method, direct counting, point counting and block counting methods. Results: Sixty five species of birds belonging to 12 orders and 28 families were recorded from Palakkal Kole. Two vulnerable species, Ciconia episcopus and Cianga cianga and 5 near threatened species were recorded from the area. Anhinga melanogaster, Pelecanusphilippensis, Threskiornis melanocephalus, Mycteria leucocephala and Limosa Umosa seen in this habitat are near threatened species. About 66.15% of birds in Palakkal Kole are water dependent foragers. About 43.08% of the avian fauna of this area are aquatic carnivores. Waders have the highest species representation in Kole wetlands. About 6570 birds were recorded during the study with maximum number of birds during the month of January. Shannon Wiener diversity index was highest in February. Charadriiformes were the most represented order with 15 species, followed by Passeriformes and Pelecaniformes. Pelecaniformes was the most abundant order with maximum number of birds during the months January-April. Twenty species showed trans-continental migration, 15 local migration and 30 species were resident to the area. Conclusion: Wetlands provide habitat for large number of birds including several threatened and near threatened bird species. Mycteria leucocephala identified as a vagrant visitor to the wetlands of Malabar and South Kerala by earlier researchers was found to have extended its range. The conservation of vulnerable and threatened species and their habitats require prioritization. Migratory birds connect continents and countries and act as excellent environmental indicators. © 2017, Ravichandran et al.


Kishore A.,Vimala College | Sunitha M.S.,National Institute of Technology Calicut
Fuzzy Information and Engineering | Year: 2016

Fuzzy graph coloring techniques are used to solve many complex real world problems. The chromatic number of complement of fuzzy graph is obtained and compared with the chromatic number of the corresponding fuzzy graph. The chromatic number of the resultant fuzzy graphs is studied, obtained by various operations on fuzzy graphs like union, join and types of products. A solution to routing problem is suggested by using chromaticity of fuzzy graphs. © 2016 Fuzzy Information and Engineering Branch of the Operations Research Society of China. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Joji Reddy L.,P.A. College | Jose B.,Vimala College
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013

In the present study, the antibacterial and DPPH radical scavenging activities of the leaf extracts and leaf essential oil of Syzygium cumini Linn were investigated. The antibacterial potential of the leaf essential oil, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaves of Syzygium cumini Linn were studied against human pathogenic bacteria viz. Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter faecalis, Salmonella paratyphi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens by 'agar well diffusion' method and DPPH activity by spectrophotometer assay using ascorbic acid as standard. Leaf essential oil as well as leaf ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extracts of Syzygium cumini Linn exhibited pronounced activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and their activity is quite comparable with the standard antibiotics such as tobramycin, gentamicin sulphate, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin screened under similar conditions. Among the leaf essential oil and leaf extracts of S. cumini studied, methanol extract and leaf essential oil showed potent scavenging activity on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The remarkable antibacterial and antioxidant activity exhibited by the plant extracts and essential oil can be attributed to the synergic effect of the active compounds present in it. The results obtained showed that the leaf methanol extract and leaf essential oil of S. cumini can be considered as good sources of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds and can be incorporated into the drug formulations.


Joji Reddy L.,P.A. College | Jose B.,Vimala College
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013

The antibacterial activity of Mimusops elengi (Sapotaceae) flowers and Trichosanthes cucumerina (Cucurbitaceae) fruits were evaluated. The antibacterial activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the flowers of Mimusops elengi (Sapotaceae) and fruits of Trichosanthes cucumerina (Cucurbitaceae) were screened against various pathogenic Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains viz. Bacillus cereus MTCC-1305, Enterobacter faecalis MTCC-5112, Salmonella paratyphi MTCC-735, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC-96, Escherichia coli MTCC-729, Proteus vulgaris MTCC-426, Klebsiella pneumoniae MTCC-109, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC-647 and Serratia marcescens MTCC-86 by 'agar well diffusion' method. The methanol extract of Mimusops elengi flower and Trichosanthes cucumerina fruit exhibited pronounced activity on all organisms tested and their activity is quite comparable with the standard antibiotics such as tobramycin, gentamicin sulphate, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin screened under similar conditions. The antimicrobial potency of these plant extracts is due to the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, carotenoids and terpenoids. The study shows that the methanolic extract of Mimusops elengi flower and Trichosanthes cucumerina fruit can be used as a potential external antiseptic and can be incorporated into drug formulations.


Joji Reddy L.,P.A. College | Jose B.,Vimala College
Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2011

Antibacterial activity of Zanthoxylum rhetsa seed essential oils steam distilled from aqueous, alkaline and acidic media against four pathogenic bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae were statistically evaluated. The acid distilled oil showed significant activity against all the tested microorganisms, and its activity is quite comparable with the standard antibiotic gentamicin screened under similar conditions. So, the acid distilled seed essential oil of Zanthoxylum rhetsa can be used as a potential external antiseptic and can be incorporated into drug formulations. The activity of aqueous and alkaline extract was found to be moderate. Zanthoxylum rhetsa seed oil showed significant activity against these organisms probably due to the synergic effect of the components present in the oil.


The total phenols, flavonoids and carotenoids contents of Samadera indica methanol extracts of leaf, bark, seed, root and seed pod were determined. Among the methanol extracts of leaf, bark, seed, root and seed pod, the total phenols, flavonoids and carotenoids contents were found to be 105.67±0.243 mg catechol equivalent per gram for seed, 136.28±1.26 mg quercetin equivalent per gram for bark and 82.37 ±0.842 mg β-carotene equivalent per gram for seed which are higher than the activity of other extracts of the plant. The antioxidant activity of the petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaf, bark, seed, root and seedpod of Samadera indica were established. The IC50 value was found lower for bark methanol extracts 43.7±1.08 μg/ml for DPPH assay, seed methanol exhibited higher activity towards reducing power assay, lower IC50 value for seed methanol extracts 44.74±0.249 μg/ml for metal chelating assay, in phosphomolybdenum assay higher activity found for seed methanol extracts 199.08 mg/mlequ of ascorbic acid/100g of the plant extracts. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity found to be higher for seed methanol extracts i.e. 78%. Significant activity towards antibacterial assay was exhibited by Samadera indica methanol extracts. 100% cytotoxicity observed by bark and leaf methanol extracts of the plant at 200 mg/ml dosage. These results confer the synergic effect of phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid contents in the plant extracts against degradative bioreactions. Further studies are needed to explore the potential compound from Samadera indica since which has high potential to be used in drug formulation. © 2016, IndianJournals.com. All rights reserved.


REDDY L.J.,P.A. College | JOSE B.,Vimala College
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2010

Nineteen compounds have been identified and quantified from the bark oil of Gliricidia sepium by GC-MS analysis. The major components are methyl-3(E)-pentenyl ether (11.55%), 3-methyl-2-butanol (10.65%), 3-methoxy hexane (10.14%), 1-(1-ethoxyethoxy)-2-hexene (9.72%), 2- decanol (8.97%), coumarin (8.07%) and hexadecanoic acid (5.16%). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was checked against various pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter faecalis, Salmonella paratyphi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens by 'agar well diffusion' method. The bark oil exhibited pronounced activity against all tested microorganisms and its activity is quite comparable with the standard antibiotics screened under similar conditions. The remarkable antibacterial activity exhibited by the bark oil can be attributed to the long chain fatty acids and alcohols present in it. This study shows that the Gliricidia sepium bark essential oil can be used as a potential external antiseptic and can be incorporated into the drug formulations.


Madhavan M.,Vimala College
International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research | Year: 2015

The present investigation was carried out to determine the possible bioactive components of tuber of Spatholobus parviflorus(Roxb. ex DC.) Kuntze belonging to the family FABACEAE using GC-MS analysis. Nine compounds were identified. The compounds in the ethanol leaves extract of S.parviflorus were identified as 3, 7, 11, 15-Tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol, 2-Tridecnol-1-ol[E], n-Hexadecanoic acid, Phytol, 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z), 1, 2- Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester, Cholestan-3-ol, 2-methylene-, (3a, 5a), Lupeol, 1-Heptatriacotanol. This is the first report of documentation of active constituents from leaves of S.parviflorus. The results of the present study reveal that the leaves of S.parviflorus have effective potential bioactive compounds, which may be leads to the formulation of new drugs to treat various diseases. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. All rights reserved.


Thomas S.,Vimala College | Mani B.,Thomas College
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2017

Essential oils are known for their medicinal value since time immemorial and continue to be of vital importance until the present day. The present study describes the composition, antibacterial and anti-oxidant potential of rhizome oil of Hedychium matthewii. Thirty-five constituents of the oil were identified to account for 82.7%, of which 85.7% was monoterpes and the rest were sesquiterpnes. Most of the major constituents were alcohols and linalool was the prominent one (45.7%). The antibacterial assay showed the bactericidal effect of the essential oil and the most susceptible organism was Streptococcus hemolyticus with a zone of inhibition of 33.8 ± 1.7 mm. The reducing power and nitric oxide scavenging activity of the essential oil was far exceeding the reference compound ascorbic acid and it could be the sign of the potential anti -oxidant power of the oil isolated. The present study also revealed the prospective of H. matthewii as a new natural source of linalool, which has medicinal and various industrial applications. © 2017, Bangladesh Pharmacological Society. All rights reserved.


Johnson D.,Vimala College | Johnson T.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Materials Today: Proceedings | Year: 2015

Zinc niobates are a potential class of compositions with varied electro ceramics applications. Phase pure Zn2Nb34O87 powders were prepared by solid state ceramic route using ZnO and Nb2O5 powders in stoichiometric proportions. The structural characterization and phase purity testing is done by powder X-ray diffraction technique. The vibrational spectroscopic analysis is done by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The optical properties of Zn2Nb34O87 are determined by UV-Vis spectroscopic studies. The optical band gap of the sample is determined from the tau plot of the absorbance data and K-M (Kubelka-Munk) plot of diffuse reflectance spectra. The photoluminescence emission (PL) spectra is studied. The dielectric constant and loss tangent of Zn2Nb34O87 at 1MHz is measured using a gain phase analyzer. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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