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Vilnius, Lithuania

Vilnius University is the oldest university in the Baltic states and one of the oldest in Northern Europe. It is the largest university in Lithuania.The university was founded in 1579 as the Jesuit Academy of Vilnius by Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland - Stephen Báthory. It was the third oldest university in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In the aftermath of the Third Partition of Poland and the November Uprising , the university was closed down and suspended its operation until 1919. In the aftermath of World War I the university saw failed attempts to restart it by Lithuania and invading Soviet forces . It finally resumed operations as Stefan Batory University in Poland , a period followed by another Soviet occupation in 1920, and the less than two-years of the Republic of Central Lithuania, incorporated into Poland in 1922.Following Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, the university was briefly administered by the Lithuanian authorities , and then after Soviet annexation of Lithuania , punctuated by a period of German occupation after German invasion of the Soviet Union , administrated as Vilnius State University by the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1945 the Polish community of students and scholars of Stafan Batory University was transferred to Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. After Lithuania regained its independence in 1990, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, it resumed its status as one of the prominent universities in Lithuania: Vilnius University.The wide-ranging Vilnius University ensemble represents all major architectural styles that predominated in Lithuania: Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque and Classicism. Wikipedia.

Dalibard J.,Kastler-Brossel Laboratory | Gerbier F.,Kastler-Brossel Laboratory | Juzeliunas G.,Vilnius University | Ohberg P.,Heriot - Watt University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2011

When a neutral atom moves in a properly designed laser field, its center-of-mass motion may mimic the dynamics of a charged particle in a magnetic field, with the emergence of a Lorentz-like force. In this Colloquium the physical principles at the basis of this artificial (synthetic) magnetism are presented. The corresponding Aharonov-Bohm phase is related to the Berry's phase that emerges when the atom adiabatically follows one of the dressed states of the atom-laser interaction. Some manifestations of artificial magnetism for a cold quantum gas, in particular, in terms of vortex nucleation are discussed. The analysis is then generalized to the simulation of non-Abelian gauge potentials and some striking consequences are presented, such as the emergence of an effective spin-orbit coupling. Both the cases of bulk gases and discrete systems, where atoms are trapped in an optical lattice, are addressed. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Hamedi H.R.,Vilnius University
Applied Optics | Year: 2014

Optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) behavior in molecular magnets is theoretically studied. It is demonstrated that the OB of the system can be controlled via adjusting the magnetic field intensity. In addition, it is shown that the frequency detuning of probe and coupling fields, as well as the cooperation parameter, has remarkable effects on the OB behavior of the system. Also, we find that OB can be converted to OM through the magnitude of control-field detuning. Our results can be used as a guideline for optimizing and controlling the switching process in the crystal of molecular magnets. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

This letter investigates the dispersion and absorption properties of a weak probe field in a multiple quantum dot molecule composed of four quantum dots. It is found that, by manipulating the electric field, the inter-dot tunneling coupling and the laser detunings, the transparency window as well as the positive derivative in the refractive index can be efficiently qualified. It is shown that switching from positive to negative dispersion or vice versa can be achieved by changing the tunneling couplings. Moreover, we realize that the width and the number of transparency windows can be properly controlled by adjusting the system's parameters. We show that this multiple QD medium can experience very narrow transparency windows accompanied by very steep positive dispersions. The effect of an incoherent pumping field on the absorption-dispersion properties of the QD molecule is then discussed. We note that tunneling is used in this QD system instead of coupling lasers. © 2014 Astro Ltd.

Goldman N.,College de France | Juzeliunas G.,Vilnius University | Ohberg P.,Heriot - Watt University | Spielman I.B.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2014

Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our Universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle - the graviton - that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge fields of different nature: materials can be immersed in external electromagnetic fields, but they can also feature emerging gauge fields in their low-energy description. In this review, we focus on another kind of gauge field: those engineered in systems of ultracold neutral atoms. In these setups, atoms are suitably coupled to laser fields that generate effective gauge potentials in their description. Neutral atoms 'feeling' laser-induced gauge potentials can potentially mimic the behavior of an electron gas subjected to a magnetic field, but also, the interaction of elementary particles with non-Abelian gauge fields. Here, we review different realized and proposed techniques for creating gauge potentials - both Abelian and non-Abelian - in atomic systems and discuss their implication in the context of quantum simulation. While most of these setups concern the realization of background and classical gauge potentials, we conclude with more exotic proposals where these synthetic fields might be made dynamical, in view of simulating interacting gauge theories with cold atoms. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

This letter investigates the dynamical behavior of the absorption in a superconducting quantum circuit with a tunable V-type artificial molecule constructed by two superconducting Josephson charge qubits coupled with each other through a superconducting quantum interference device. It is found that the ratio of the Josephson coupling energy to the capacitive coupling strength provides an extra controlling parameter for manipulating transient absorption behaviors. It is also realized that in the presence of an incoherent pumping field, lasing without inversion can be obtained just through the joint effect of the Josephson coupling energy and the capacitive coupling strength. Results may provide some new possibilities for solid-state quantum information science. © 2015 Astro Ltd.

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