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Villanova, PA, United States

Villanova University is a private university located in Radnor Township, a suburb northwest of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the United States. Named after Saint Thomas of Villanova, the school is the oldest Catholic university in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.Founded in 1842 by the Order of Saint Augustine, the university traces its roots to old Saint Augustine's Church, Philadelphia, which the Augustinian friars founded in 1796, and to its parish school, Saint Augustine's Academy, which was established in 1811. U.S. News and World Report lists Villanova as a "more selective" regional university and ranks it as the best regional university in the North. Barrons lists Villanova as most selective. Wikipedia.

Hannon L.,Villanova University
Crime and Delinquency | Year: 2013

During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction. Relying on a state-level panel spanning 1980 to 2004, the study measures the impact of incarceration on three poverty indexes. Estimates are generated using instrumental variable techniques to account for possible simultaneity between incarceration and poverty. The evidence indicates that growing incarceration has significantly increased poverty, regardless of which index is used to gauge poverty. Indeed, the official poverty rate would have fallen considerably during the period had it not been for mass incarceration. © The Author(s) 2013.

Russell M.P.,Villanova University
Advances in Marine Biology | Year: 2013

Although Echinodermata is one of the only stenohaline phyla in the animal kingdom, several species show remarkable abilities to acclimate and survive in euryhaline habitats. The last comprehensive review of this topic was over 25 years ago and much work has been published since. These recent studies expand the field reports of species living in hyposaline environments and detail experimental research on the responses, physiological range, and limits of echinoderms to salinity challenges. I provide a brief review of the historical concepts and measures of salinity and relate this overview to the physiological and ecological studies on echinoderms. Many marine biologists are not aware that chemical oceanographers advocate abandoning today's commonly used measure of salinity, 'PSU', in favour of absolute salinity (SA)-a return to the ppt (‰) metric. The literature survey reveals only one euryhaline-tolerant species in the Southern Hemisphere (there are 42 in the North) and more euryhaline species in the geologically older, brackish seas. The green sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, is one of the most tolerant echinoids to hyposalinity. Different source populations have varying levels of acclimation and tolerance to hyposalinity. Experiments show that green urchins previously unexposed to hyposalinity experience a clear decrease in growth rates; however, this adverse effect is short lived. Green urchins already acclimated to hyposalinity can endure intense and repeated bouts and grow at the same rate of urchins not exposed. Promising future work on the physiological and cellular mechanisms of hyposalinity acclimation includes comparative studies of the role of heat shock proteins in the response to changing salinities. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Andriole S.J.,Villanova University
Communications of the ACM | Year: 2010

What do wikis, blogs, podcasts, social networks, virtual worlds, and the rest do for corporate productivity and management? © 2010 ACM.

David A.R.,University of Manchester | Zimmerman M.R.,Villanova University
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2010

In industrialized societies, cancer is second only to cardiovascular disease as a cause of death. The history of this disorder has the potential to improve our understanding of disease prevention, aetiology, pathogenesis and treatment. A striking rarity of malignancies in ancient physical remains might indicate that cancer was rare in antiquity, and so poses questions about the role of carcinogenic environmental factors in modern societies. Although the rarity of cancer in antiquity remains undisputed, the first published histological diagnosis of cancer in an Egyptian mummy demonstrates that new evidence is still forthcoming. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Weston N.B.,Villanova University
Estuaries and Coasts | Year: 2014

The availability of suspended sediments will be a dominant factor influencing the stability of tidal wetlands as sea levels rise. Watershed-derived sediments are a critical source of material supporting accretion in many tidal wetlands, and recent declines in wetland extent in several large river delta systems have been attributed in part to declines in sediment delivery. Little attention has been given, however, to changes in sediment supply outside of large river deltas. In this study, significant declines in suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) over time were observed for 25 of 61 rivers examined that drain to the East and Gulf Coasts of the USA. Declines in fluvial SSC were significantly correlated with increasing water retention behind dams, indicating that human activities play a role in declining sediment delivery. There was a regional pattern to changes in fluvial sediment, and declines in SSCs were also significantly related to rates of relative sea level rise (RSLR) along the coast, such that wetlands experiencing greater RSLR also tend to be receiving less fluvial sediment. Tidal wetlands in the Mid-Atlantic, Mississippi River Delta, and Texas Gulf especially may become increasingly vulnerable due to rapid RSLR and reductions in sediment. These results also indicate that past rates of marsh accretion may not be indicative of potential future accretion due to changes in sediment availability. Declining watershed sediment delivery to the coastal zone will limit the ability of tidal marshes to keep pace with rising sea levels in some coastal systems. © 2013 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation.

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