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Skara, Sweden

Gustavsson F.,Lund University | Glantz M.,Lund University | Buitenhuis A.J.,University of Aarhus | Lindmark-Mansson H.,Lund University | And 3 more authors.
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2014

Optimisation of cheese yield is crucial for cheese production; a previous study showed large variations in chymosin-induced coagulation in milk from the second most common Swedish dairy breed, Swedish Red. In the present study, the effect of gross composition, protein composition, total and ionic calcium content, phosphorous content and casein micelle size on chymosin-induced gelation was determined in milk from 98 Swedish Red cows. The study showed that protein content and total calcium content, ionic calcium concentration and casein micelle size were the most important factors explaining the variation of gelation properties in this sample set. Non-coagulating milk was suggested to have lower ionic and total calcium content as well as lower relative concentrations of β-lactoglobulin than coagulating milk. The lower total calcium content in non-coagulating milk poses a problem as the difference was, theoretically, four times larger than the amount of calcium that is normally added in cheese processing. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Glantz M.,Lund University | Lindmark Mansson H.,Lund University | Stalhammar H.,VikingGenetics | Paulsson M.,Lund University
Journal of Dairy Research | Year: 2012

The relations between cow genetics and milk composition have gained a lot of attention during the past years, however, generally only a few compositional traits have been examined. The aim of this study was to determine if polymorphisms in the leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR) and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) genes as well as genetic polymorphism of β-casein (β-CN), κ-CN and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) impact several bovine milk composition traits. Individual milk samples from the Swedish Red and Swedish Holstein breeds were analyzed for components in the protein, lipid, carbohydrate and mineral profiles. Cow alleles were determined on the following SNP: A1457G, A252T, A59V and C963T on the LEP gene, T945M on the LEPR gene and Nt984+8(A-G) on the DGAT1 gene. Additionally, genetic variants of β-CN, κ-CN and β-LG were determined. For both the breeds, the same tendency of minor allele frequency was found for all SNPs and protein genes, except on LEPA1457G and LEPC963T. This study indicated significant (P<0·05) associations between the studied SNPs and several compositional parameters. Protein content was influenced by LEPA1457G (G>A) and LEPC963T (T>C), whereas total Ca, ionic Ca concentration and milk pH were affected by LEP A1457G, LEPA59V, LEPC963T and LEPR T945M. However, yields of milk, protein, CN, lactose, total Ca and P were mainly affected by β-CN (A2>A1) and κ-CN (A>B>E). β-LG was mainly associated with whey protein yield and ionic Ca concentration (A>B). Thus, this study shows possibilities of using these polymorphisms as markers within genetic selection programs to improve and adjust several compositional parameters. © 2011 Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research. Source

Glantz M.,Lund University | Lindmark Masson H.,Lund University | Paulsson M.,Lund University | Stalhammar H.,VikingGenetics
Journal of Dairy Research | Year: 2012

Genomic selection is a new technology in which selection decisions are based on direct genomic values (DGVs) or genomic enhanced breeding values (GEBVs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the relations between DGVs and several milk traits important for both the nutritional value and processability of milk. This is a new approach and can be used to increase the knowledge on how genomic selection can be used in practice. Morning milk samples from Swedish Holstein cows were analyzed for milk composition and technological properties. DGVs were received for each cow for milk, protein and fat yield, milk index, udder health, Nordic total merit and a quota was calculated between fat and milk yield as well as protein and milk yield. The results show that linear correlations exist (P<0·10) between the studied DGVs and contents and yields of parameters in the protein (P=0·002-0·097), fat (P=0·024-0·055) and mineral profiles (P=0·001- 0·099) as well as for cheese characteristics (P=0·004- 0·065), thus making it possible to obtain detailed information on milk traits that are not registered in the milk recording scheme. Hence, genomic selection will be an efficient tool for breeding and dairy industry to select cows early in life for targeted milk production. © 2011 Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research. Source

Glantz M.,Lund University | Devold T.G.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Vegarud G.E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Lindmark Mansson H.,Swedish Dairy Association | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

The economic output of the dairy industry is to a great extent dependent on the processing of milk into other milk-based products such as cheese. The yield and quality of cheese are dependent on both the composition and technological properties of milk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance and effects of casein (CN) micelle size and milk composition on milk gelation characteristics in order to evaluate the possibilities for enhancing gelation properties through breeding. Milk was collected on 4 sampling occasions at the farm level in winter and summer from dairy cows with high genetic merit, classified as elite dairy cows, of the Swedish Red and Swedish Holstein breeds. Comparisons were made with milk from a Swedish Red herd, a Swedish Holstein herd, and a Swedish dairy processor. Properties of CN micelles, such as their native and rennet-induced CN micelle size and their ζ-potential, were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, and rennet-induced gelation characteristics, including gel strength, gelation time, and frequency sweeps, were determined. Milk parameters of the protein, lipid, and carbohydrate profiles as well as minerals were used to obtain correlations with native CN micelle size and gelation characteristics. Milk pH and protein, CN, and lactose contents were found to affect milk gelation. Smaller native CN micelles were shown to form stronger gels when poorly coagulating milk was excluded from the correlation analysis. In addition, milk pH correlated positively, whereas Mg and K correlated negatively with native CN micellar size. The milk from the elite dairy cows was shown to have good gelation characteristics. Furthermore, genetic progress in relation to CN micelle size was found for these cows as a correlated response to selection for the Swedish breeding objective if optimizing for milk gelation characteristics. The results indicate that selection for smaller native CN micelles and lower milk pH through breeding would enhance gelation properties and may thus improve the initial step in the processing of cheese. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Pedersen L.D.,University of Aarhus | Kargo M.,University of Aarhus | Kargo M.,Knowledge Center for Agriculture | Berg P.,University of Aarhus | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to test whether the use of X-semen in a dairy cattle population using genomic selection (GS) and multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) increases the selection intensity on cow dams and thereby the genetic gain in the entire population. Also, the dynamics of using different types of sexed semen (X, Y or conventional) in the nucleus were investigated. The stochastic simulation study partly supported the hypothesis as the genetic gain in the entire population was elevated when X-semen was used in the production population as GS exploited the higher selection intensity among heifers with great accuracy. However, when MOET was applied, the effect was considerably diminished as was the exchange of females between the nucleus and the production population, thus causing modest genetic profit from using X-sorted semen in the production population. In addition, the effect of using sexed semen on the genetic gain was very small compared with the effect of MOET and highly dependent on whether cow dams or bull dams were inseminated with sexed semen and on what type of semen that was used for the bull dams. The rate of inbreeding was seldom affected by the use of sexed semen. However, when all young bull candidates were born following MOET, the results showed that the use of Y-semen in the breeding nucleus tended to decrease the rate of inbreeding as it enabled GS to increase within-family selection. This implies that the benefit from using sexed semen in a modern dairy cattle breeding scheme applying both GS and MOET may be found in its beneficial effect on the rate of inbreeding. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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