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Bandrakalli P.,Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science | Ganekal S.,Nayana Superspecialty Eye Hospital and Research Center | Jhanji V.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Jhanji V.,University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | Year: 2012

Purpose: To determine the prevalence and etiology of childhood monocular blindness in a rural population in southern India. Methods: A total of 14,423 children younger than 15 years in randomly selected villages (8,222 households) with a total population of 40,336 were screened. Screening was performed in two stages. In the fi rst stage, all children with visual acuity worse than 6/18 in at least one eye were screened. Subsequently, children with visual acuity worse than 3/60 in one eye were referred to a tertiary care hospital for further examination for determination of the cause of visual impairment. Results: The age range of aff ected children was 1 to 15 years (median age: 12 years). Fifteen children had monocular visual impairment, yielding a prevalence rate of 1.13 in 1,000 children. Refractive error leading to amblyopia was the most common cause of monocular visual impairment, followed by trauma, congenital disorders, and vitamin A defi ciency. One case had toxoplasmosis. Approximately one-third of the children were born of a consanguineous marriage (30.06%). The proportion of fi rst-degree consanguinity (46.4%) was higher than that of second-degree (37.5%) or third-degree (16.1%) consanguinity. Conclusion: The prevalence of childhood monocular blindness was high in the current study, but most causes were preventable or treatable. Improved screening methods (especially for refractive errors), genetic counseling, and therapeutic interventions can reduce the burden of childhood blindness. © SLACK Incorporated.

Praveen D.,George Institute for Global Health | Maulik P.K.,George Institute for Global Health | Raghavendra B.,Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science | Guggilla R.K.,George Institute for Global Health | Bhatia P.,Indian Institute of Health and Family Welfare
Substance Use and Misuse | Year: 2012

A cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2008 among 174 children in observation homes in Hyderabad, India, to estimate the distribution of inhalant (whitener) use among this population. Data were collected using an instrument developed for this purpose. About 61 of the children were boys and their mean age was 12.2 years (range 518 years). Whitener use was found in 35 of the children along with concurrent use of other substances. Peer pressure was the commonest cause reported for initiating substance use. The high prevalence is an important concern for the Indian policymakers given the large number of street children in Indian cities. Copyright © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Ramesh K.,Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science
Australasian Medical Journal | Year: 2010

Background: Obesity is a complex condition with serious social and psychological dimensions, that affects virtually all age and socioeconomic groups and threatens to overwhelm both developed and developing countries. This problem is increasing in adolescents and various factors contribute to it. As there is paucity of data regarding this problem in Kerala, India, the present study was undertaken to find the magnitude and to explore the factors associated with it. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among 8, 9 and 10 standard students of high schools of Thiruvananthapuram City Corporation,Kerala,India. The sample size estimated using formula is 859 and it was doubled to overcome the design effect so the sample size of this study was 1718 and the technique adopted is Multistage and stratified random sampling. Ethical clearance was obtained and permission from respective authorities of schools was also taken. Data was collected using pre designed and pretested semi structured questionnaire which is self administered. Body mass index was calculated based on physical measurements such as height and weight using standard methods. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is found to be 18.3%. The prevalence of overweight alone is 12% and obesity is 6.3%. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that family h/o overweight/obesity, maternal occupation of business/services, watching TV/computer use more than 16 hrs/week, fast food consumption, not involved in sports and inadequate aerobic exercise are significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion: There is increased prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescents and many factors associated with it are modifiable.

Indumati V.,Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2010

Biochemical markers of bone remodeling have been developed over the past 20 years, which are more specific for bone tissue than the conventional ones. They have been widely used in clinical research and in the clinical trials of new therapies as secondary endpoints of treatment efficacy. Most of the interest has been devoted to their use in postmenopausal osteoporosis, a condition which is characterized by the subtle modification of bone metabolism that cannot readily be detected by conventional markers of bone turnover. Biochemical markers that reflect remodeling and can be measured in blood or urine include resorption markers (eg: pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline, collagen cross links) and formation markers (eg: alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin). The new bone remodeling markers have been found to be more sensitive in 1) Monitoring bone loss 2) To see the antiresorptive treatment efficacy 3) To predict fracture risk.

Murthy S.,Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2015

Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported.

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