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Praveen D.,George Institute for Global Health | Maulik P.K.,George Institute for Global Health | Raghavendra B.,Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science | Guggilla R.K.,George Institute for Global Health | Bhatia P.,Indian Institute of Health and Family Welfare
Substance Use and Misuse | Year: 2012

A cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2008 among 174 children in observation homes in Hyderabad, India, to estimate the distribution of inhalant (whitener) use among this population. Data were collected using an instrument developed for this purpose. About 61 of the children were boys and their mean age was 12.2 years (range 518 years). Whitener use was found in 35 of the children along with concurrent use of other substances. Peer pressure was the commonest cause reported for initiating substance use. The high prevalence is an important concern for the Indian policymakers given the large number of street children in Indian cities. Copyright © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


PubMed | Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science, Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College and Basaveshwara Medical College and Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of translational internal medicine | Year: 2016

Tuberculosis (TB) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have reached epidemic proportions in our country. This study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of HIV infection among TB patients and to evaluate the various clinical features of TB in seropositive and seronegative patients. This study was undertaken in Vijayanagara Institute of Medical Sciences, Bellary. It was cross-sectional comparative observational study conducted from December 2010 to May 2012.A total of 100 consecutive patients diagnosed with TB satisfying inclusion criteria were selected for the study. All patients went through a detailed evaluation along with testing for HIV seroprevalence. Chi-square and Students The overall HIV seroprevalence among TB patients was 8%. Seroprevalence was highest in the age group between 31 and 40 years at 29.41% (odds ratio [OR] = 11.11, Human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence is quite high among TB patients in Bellary. During the evaluation of TB patients, the possibility of HIV co-infection should be kept in mind, and thus adequate knowledge of the likely clinical features is absolutely necessary.


PubMed | Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science, Assistant Professor, Professor and Basaveshwara Medical College and Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2016

Plasma sialic acid levels are elevated in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients with proteinuria. Renal damage is mainly caused by free radicals that are excessively generated in DM. Thiols play an important role in the cellular antioxidative defence mechanisms mainly through thiol-disulphide exchange reaction. Diallyl disulphide, a garlic oil principle component, is known for its anti-diabetic properties. Its structural analogue, Diaceto-Dipropyl Disulphide (DADPDS), is a less toxic and more palatable disulphide and possesses similar anti-diabetic actions.This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of DADPDS in prevention of de-sialation of Glomerular Basement Membrane (GBM) in alloxan diabetic rats and to assess effect of DADPDS on renal tissue thiol levels.Rats were divided into Normal, Diabetic and DADPDS treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection (IP) of alloxan. DADPDS was fed by gastric intubation. Plasma Sialic acid was determined by Ehrlichs method and renal tissue thiol levels by Nitroprusside reaction method.This study showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in plasma sialic acid, plasma glucose and renal tissue TBARS levels along with significant increase (p<0.001) in renal tissue thiol levels in DADPDS treated alloxan diabetic rats when compared to diabetic control rats.Hence it may be concluded that DADPDS helps in preventing de-sialation of GBM in alloxan diabetic rats and improves renal tissue antioxidant defence mechanisms, may be through thiol-disulphide exchange reaction and thereby exhibits a possible clinical use in prevention of renal complications like diabetic nephropathy.


PubMed | Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science, Assistant Professor. and Professor.
Type: Case Reports | Journal: The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India | Year: 2016

We are reporting a case of poisoning with a non-organophosphate pesticide (indoxacarb) resulting in methemoglobinemia and seizures, and successfully treated with ventilator care and intravenous ascorbic acid. Since there are limited data concerning the human toxicity of indoxacarb, physicians in emergency rooms should be aware of this rare poison and also its clinical presentations.


Siddalingappa K.,Navodaya Medical College Hospital | Murthy S.,Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science | Herakal K.,Navodaya Medical College Hospital | Kusuma M.,Navodaya Medical College Hospital
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2015

Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported.


Yadav J.,Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science | Bharat C.,Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science
Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology | Year: 2015

Background and Objectives: Alcohol induced liver disease is a major cause of ill health and mortality. This autopsy study is conducted to know the morphological changes of liver disease in alcoholics and to study the incidental liver findings. Materials and Method: Present study is a prospective descriptive study. Total of 50 autopsy liver specimens with history of habitual alcohol intake, laboratory findings and autopsy findings were collected from the department of Forensic medicine during the period 2011-13. Detailed gross and microscopic examination of liver specimens were done. Results: Mean duration of alcohol consumption was 13years. Hepatomegaly was the common gross finding seen in 42%(n-21) of cases. Microscopic findings were steatosis in 28%(n-14) cases, steatohepatisis in 26%(n-13) cases, cirrhosis in 18%(n-9) cases, alcoholic hepatitis in 10%(n-5) cases. Miliary tuberculosis was the incidental finding seen in 8% (n-4) of cases. Conclusion: Autopsy is an excellent learning tool. This study showed that apart from the usual spectrum of alcoholic liver disease, miliary tuberculosis is an unexpected common finding in chronic alcoholics. © 2015, Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. All rights reserved.


Ramesh K.,Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science
Australasian Medical Journal | Year: 2010

Background: Obesity is a complex condition with serious social and psychological dimensions, that affects virtually all age and socioeconomic groups and threatens to overwhelm both developed and developing countries. This problem is increasing in adolescents and various factors contribute to it. As there is paucity of data regarding this problem in Kerala, India, the present study was undertaken to find the magnitude and to explore the factors associated with it. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among 8, 9 and 10 standard students of high schools of Thiruvananthapuram City Corporation,Kerala,India. The sample size estimated using formula is 859 and it was doubled to overcome the design effect so the sample size of this study was 1718 and the technique adopted is Multistage and stratified random sampling. Ethical clearance was obtained and permission from respective authorities of schools was also taken. Data was collected using pre designed and pretested semi structured questionnaire which is self administered. Body mass index was calculated based on physical measurements such as height and weight using standard methods. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is found to be 18.3%. The prevalence of overweight alone is 12% and obesity is 6.3%. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that family h/o overweight/obesity, maternal occupation of business/services, watching TV/computer use more than 16 hrs/week, fast food consumption, not involved in sports and inadequate aerobic exercise are significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion: There is increased prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescents and many factors associated with it are modifiable.


Vinayaka Prasanna K.,Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science | Vanaja D.,Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science | Raghavendra B.,Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science
Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology | Year: 2016

Background: Sudden deaths due to cardiovascular causes is an important component of sudden natural deaths holding a lions share. Given the current trends and projected burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), it is likely that SCD will also increase in LMIC in the future. Objectives: To study the sudden cardiac deaths due to coronary artery disease and factors influencing these deaths. Methodology: A case series autopsy study of sudden deaths due to coronary artery disease in young adults among autopsies was conducted at department of forensic medicine, Victoria hospital, Bangalore Medical College, Bangalore, between January 2005 to December 2005. A sum total of 52 cases were studied and detailed autopsy was done in all the cases also taking aid of histopathological examination in all the cases. Results: Maximum numbers of deaths were seen, in the age group of 41-50 years (46.2%) followed by 31-40 years (42.3%), males (92%) outnumbered the females (8%) in being victims of coronary artery disease. Double vessel disease was seen in more than half of the cases (57.6%) followed by single vessel disease (34.6%) and triple vessel disease (7.6%). Atheromatous type of occlusion (77%) was seen in majority of cases followed by thrombosis (19.2%) and both atheromatous and thrombosis was seen in few cases (3.8%). Majority of the victims were obese (75%). Smoking and alcohol formed the fatal combination of habits contributing to coronary artery disease in nearly half of the victims (48.1%). Conclusion: In this study coronary atherosclerosis was the major cause of sudden cardiac death. Sudden death is a source of concern and a detailed postmortem examination is mandatory to ascertain the cause. © 2015, Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. All rights reserved.


Yadav J.K.,Vijayanagara Institute Of Medical science
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2015

Malakoplakia of the intestine is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder, usually affecting colon and rectum. It is commonly seen in adults. Only few cases have been reported in children. I am presenting a rare case of malakoplakia of large intestine in eight year old boy who presented with multiple polyps in the colon.


PubMed | Vijayanagara Institute of Medical science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicology international | Year: 2016

Fipronil is a broadspectrum N-phenylpyrazole insecticide with gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor inhibitory action causing hyperexcitability of central nervous system. There is no literature reported in the past concerning its acute toxicity in human beings. A case report is useful for workers in medical and veterinary field. Hence, we are reporting a case in which young male intoxicated with fipronil compound was presented to the emergency department for having generalized tonic-clonic seizures and subsequently with the features of delirium for few days. This patient was treated with benzodiazepines which controlled the seizures and antipsychotics were given for few days for treating the psychosis.

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