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Lng K.V.Q.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation | Nguyn L.T.H.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation
Molecular Brain | Year: 2013

Evidence suggests that there are aberrations in the vitamin D-endocrine system in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we review the relationship between vitamin D and ALS. Vitamin D deficiency was reported in patients with ALS. Dietary vitamin D§ssub§3§esub§ supplementation improves functional capacity in the G93A transgenic mouse model of ALS. Genetic studies have provided an opportunity to identify the proteins that link vitamin D to ALS pathology, including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, toll-like receptors, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, heme oxygenase-1, and calcium-binding proteins, as well as the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Vitamin D also exerts its effect on ALS through cell-signaling mechanisms, including glutamate, matrix metalloproteinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, prostaglandins, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide synthase.In conclusion, vitamin D may have a role in ALS. Further investigation of vitamin D in ALS patients is needed. © 2013 Lng and Nguyn; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Luong K.V.Q.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation | NguyeN L.T.H.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation
Cancer Genomics and Proteomics | Year: 2013

The relationship between supplemental vitamins and various types of cancer has been the focus of recent investigation, and supplemental vitamins have been reported to modulate cancer rates. A significant association has been demonstrated between cancer and low levels of thiamine in the serum. Genetic studies have helped identify a number of factors that link thiamine to cancer, including the solute carrier transporter (SLC19) gene, transketolase, transcription factor p53, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 gene, and the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Thiamine supplementation may contribute to a high rate of tumor cell survival, proliferation and chemotherapy resistance. Thiamine has also been implicated in cancer through its effects on matrix metalloproteinases, prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase-2, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide synthase. However, some studies have suggested that thiamine may exhibit some antitumor effects. The role of thiamine in cancer is controversial. However, thiamine deficiency may occur in patients with cancer and cause serious disorders, including Wernicke's encephalopathy, that require parenteral thiamine supplementation. A very high dose of thiamine produces a growth-inhibitory effect in cancer. Therefore, further investigations of thiamine in cancer are needed to clarify this relationship.


Luong K.V.Q.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation | Hoang Nguyen L.T.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation
Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Vitamin D metabolites are important immune-modulatory hormones and are able to suppress Th2-mediated allergic airway disease.Some genetic factors that may contribute to asthma are regulated by vitamin D, such as vitamin D receptor (VDR), human leukocyte antigen genes (HLA), human Toll-like receptors (TLR), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a disintegrin and metalloprotein-33 (ADAM-33), and poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Vitamin D has also been implicated in asthma through its effects on the obesity, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and high vitamin D level, vitamin D supplement, checkpoint protein kinase 1 (Chk1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and gamma delta T cells (γδT).Vitamin D plays a role in asthma and exerts its action through either genomic and/or non-genomic ways. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Luong K.v.q.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation | Nguyen L.T.H.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology | Year: 2010

Background: Cancer is the leading cause of death in the United States, and the probability of developing cancer increases dramatically with age. Interestingly, vitamin D deficiency is also recognized more often in people of advanced ages. A potential relationship between vitamin D deficiency and cancer has been reported in the literature. Method: Review Medline database literature and discuss the relationship between vitamin D status and cancer. Results: Environmental (including seasonal and geographic) and genetic factors contribute to the development of both vitamin D deficiency and cancer. The vitamin D receptor is present in many tissues, especially in malignant cells, and may contribute to the successful use of vitamin D and its analogs in the treatment of some cancer patients. Conclusion: Further investigation of the role of vitamin D in the treatment of cancer is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2009.


Quoc Luong K.V.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation | Nguyen L.T.H.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation
Cancer Management and Research | Year: 2012

Cancer is the leading cause of death in the USA, and the incidence of cancer increases dramatically with age. Beta-adrenergic blockers appear to have a beneficial clinical effect in cancer patients. In this paper, we review the evidence of an association between β-adrenergic blockade and cancer. Genetic studies have provided the opportunity to determine which proteins link β-adrenergic blockade to cancer pathology. In particular, this link involves the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, the renin-angiotensin system, transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. Beta-adrenergic blockers also exert anticancer effects through non-genomic factors, including matrix metalloproteinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase-2, oxidative stress, and nitric oxide synthase. In conclusion, β-adrenergic blockade may play a beneficial role in cancer treatment. Additional investigations that examine β-adrenergic blockers as cancer therapeutics are required to further elucidate this role. © 2012 Luong and Nguyên, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

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