Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation

Saint Helena, CA, United States

Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation

Saint Helena, CA, United States

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Luong K.V.Q.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation | Nguyen L.T.H.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation
CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common form of neurodegeneration among elderly individuals. PD is clinically characterized by tremors, rigidity, slowness of movement, and postural imbalance. In this paper, we review the evidence for an association between PD and thiamine. Interestingly, a significant association has been demonstrated between PD and low levels of serum thiamine, and thiamine supplements appear to have beneficial clinical effects against PD. Multiple studies have evaluated the connection between thiamine and PD pathology, and candidate pathways involve the transcription factor Sp1, p53, Bcl-2, caspase-3, tyrosine hydroxylase, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, vascular endothelial growth factor, advanced glycation end products, nuclear factor kappa B, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Thus, a review of the literature suggests that thiamine plays a role in PD, although further investigation into the effects of thiamine in PD is needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Lng K.V.Q.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation | Nguyn L.T.H.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation
Molecular Brain | Year: 2013

Evidence suggests that there are aberrations in the vitamin D-endocrine system in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we review the relationship between vitamin D and ALS. Vitamin D deficiency was reported in patients with ALS. Dietary vitamin D§ssub§3§esub§ supplementation improves functional capacity in the G93A transgenic mouse model of ALS. Genetic studies have provided an opportunity to identify the proteins that link vitamin D to ALS pathology, including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, toll-like receptors, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, heme oxygenase-1, and calcium-binding proteins, as well as the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Vitamin D also exerts its effect on ALS through cell-signaling mechanisms, including glutamate, matrix metalloproteinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, prostaglandins, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide synthase.In conclusion, vitamin D may have a role in ALS. Further investigation of vitamin D in ALS patients is needed. © 2013 Lng and Nguyn; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Vinh Quoc Luong K.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation | Nguyen L.T.H.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation
Clinical Rheumatology | Year: 2012

Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have a high prevalence of abnormal bone metabolism and vitamin D deficiency. Genetic studies have provided the opportunity to determine the specific proteins linking vitamin D to SLE pathology [i.e., major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, the vitamin D receptor (VDR), microRNAs (miRNAs), the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), apolipoprotein E (ApoE), liver X receptor (LXR), and toll-like receptors (TLRs)]. Vitamin D also exerts protective effects against SLE through non-genomic factors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure, matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the prostaglandins (PGs), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and oxidative stress. Thus, vitamin D may play a beneficial role in SLE. Moreover, the use of calcitriol or 1α,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 is optimal for the treatment of SLE patients because this active form of the vitamin D3 metabolite can modulate inflammatory cytokine production. However, further investigation into the effects of calcitriol with SLE is warranted. © Clinical Rheumatology 2012.


Luong K.V.Q.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation | NguyeN L.T.H.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation
Cancer Genomics and Proteomics | Year: 2013

The relationship between supplemental vitamins and various types of cancer has been the focus of recent investigation, and supplemental vitamins have been reported to modulate cancer rates. A significant association has been demonstrated between cancer and low levels of thiamine in the serum. Genetic studies have helped identify a number of factors that link thiamine to cancer, including the solute carrier transporter (SLC19) gene, transketolase, transcription factor p53, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 gene, and the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Thiamine supplementation may contribute to a high rate of tumor cell survival, proliferation and chemotherapy resistance. Thiamine has also been implicated in cancer through its effects on matrix metalloproteinases, prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase-2, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide synthase. However, some studies have suggested that thiamine may exhibit some antitumor effects. The role of thiamine in cancer is controversial. However, thiamine deficiency may occur in patients with cancer and cause serious disorders, including Wernicke's encephalopathy, that require parenteral thiamine supplementation. A very high dose of thiamine produces a growth-inhibitory effect in cancer. Therefore, further investigations of thiamine in cancer are needed to clarify this relationship.


Luong K.v.q.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation | Nguyen L.T.H.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology | Year: 2010

Background: Cancer is the leading cause of death in the United States, and the probability of developing cancer increases dramatically with age. Interestingly, vitamin D deficiency is also recognized more often in people of advanced ages. A potential relationship between vitamin D deficiency and cancer has been reported in the literature. Method: Review Medline database literature and discuss the relationship between vitamin D status and cancer. Results: Environmental (including seasonal and geographic) and genetic factors contribute to the development of both vitamin D deficiency and cancer. The vitamin D receptor is present in many tissues, especially in malignant cells, and may contribute to the successful use of vitamin D and its analogs in the treatment of some cancer patients. Conclusion: Further investigation of the role of vitamin D in the treatment of cancer is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2009.


Luong K.V.Q.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation | Hoang Nguyen L.T.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation
Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Vitamin D metabolites are important immune-modulatory hormones and are able to suppress Th2-mediated allergic airway disease.Some genetic factors that may contribute to asthma are regulated by vitamin D, such as vitamin D receptor (VDR), human leukocyte antigen genes (HLA), human Toll-like receptors (TLR), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a disintegrin and metalloprotein-33 (ADAM-33), and poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Vitamin D has also been implicated in asthma through its effects on the obesity, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and high vitamin D level, vitamin D supplement, checkpoint protein kinase 1 (Chk1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and gamma delta T cells (γδT).Vitamin D plays a role in asthma and exerts its action through either genomic and/or non-genomic ways. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Quoc Luong K.V.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation | Nguyen L.T.H.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation
Cancer Management and Research | Year: 2012

Cancer is the leading cause of death in the USA, and the incidence of cancer increases dramatically with age. Beta-adrenergic blockers appear to have a beneficial clinical effect in cancer patients. In this paper, we review the evidence of an association between β-adrenergic blockade and cancer. Genetic studies have provided the opportunity to determine which proteins link β-adrenergic blockade to cancer pathology. In particular, this link involves the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, the renin-angiotensin system, transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. Beta-adrenergic blockers also exert anticancer effects through non-genomic factors, including matrix metalloproteinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase-2, oxidative stress, and nitric oxide synthase. In conclusion, β-adrenergic blockade may play a beneficial role in cancer treatment. Additional investigations that examine β-adrenergic blockers as cancer therapeutics are required to further elucidate this role. © 2012 Luong and Nguyên, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Lng K.V.Q.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation | Nguyn L.T.H.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation
Gastroenterology Research and Practice | Year: 2013

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease of the liver of unknown etiology. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with PBC, and many studies have demonstrated the significant effect of calcitriol on liver cell physiology. Vitamin D has antiproliferative and antifibrotic effects on liver fibrosis. Genetic studies have provided an opportunity to determine which proteins link vitamin D to PBC pathology (e.g., the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, the vitamin D receptor, toll-like receptors, apolipoprotein E, Nramp1, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4). Vitamin D also exerts its effect on PBC through cell signaling mechanisms, that is, matrix metalloproteinases, prostaglandins, reactive oxygen species, and the transforming growth factor betas. In conclusion, vitamin D may have a beneficial role in the treatment of PBC. The best form of vitamin D for use in the PBC is calcitriol because it is the active form of vitamin D 3 metabolite, and its receptors are present in the sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells, and stellate cells of normal livers, as well as in the biliary cell line. © 2013 Khanh vinh quc Lng and Lan Thi Hoàng Nguyn.


L'O'Ng K.V.Q.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation | Nguyen L.T.H.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation
American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias | Year: 2013

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly individuals and is associated with progressive memory loss and cognitive dysfunction. A significant association between AD and low levels of vitamin D has been demonstrated. Furthermore, vitamin D supplements appear to have a beneficial clinical effect on AD by regulating micro-RNA, enhancing toll-like receptors, modulating vascular endothelial factor expression, modulating angiogenin, and advanced glycation end products. Vitamin D also exerts its effects on AD by regulating calcium-sensing receptor expression, enhancing amyloid-β peptides clearance, interleukin 10, downregulating matrix metalloproteinases, upregulating heme oxygenase 1, and suppressing the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate expression. In conclusion, vitamin D may play a beneficial role in AD. Calcitriol is the best vitamin D supplement for AD, because it is the active form of the vitamin D3 metabolite and modulates inflammatory cytokine expression. Therefore, further investigation of the role of calcitriol in AD is needed. © The Author(s) 2013.


Lu'O'Ng K.V.Q.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation | Nguyen L.T.H.,Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation
American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias | Year: 2011

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly individuals and is associated with progressive neurodegeneration of the human neocortex. Patients with AD have a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, which is also associated with low mood and impaired cognitive performance in older people. Genetic studies have provided the opportunity to determine which proteins link vitamin D to AD pathology (ie, the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, vitamin D receptor, renin-angiotensin system, apolipoprotein E, liver X receptor, Sp1 promoter gene, and the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1gene). Vitamin D also exerts its effect on AD through nongenomic factors, that is, L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, nerve growth factor, the prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase 2, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide synthase. In conclusion, vitamin D clearly has a beneficial role in AD and improves cognitive function in some patients with AD. Calcitriol, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3, is best used for AD because of its active form of vitamin D 3 metabolite and its receptor in the central nervous system. © 2011 SAGE Publications.

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