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Ngoc-Bich N.,Vietnam Public Health Association | Tenkate T.,Queensland University of Technology
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2010

This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used as data for this risk assessment. A food frequency survey of 400 randomly selected households in these wards was conducted to provide data for exposure assessment. Results showed that local residents who had consumed locally cultivated foods, especially fresh water fish and bottom-feeding fish, free-ranging chicken, duck, and beef were at a very high risk, with their daily dioxin intake far exceeding the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. Based on the results of this assessment, a multifaceted risk management program was developed and has been recognized as the first public health program ever to have been implemented in Vietnam to reduce the risks of dioxin exposure at dioxin hot-spots. © 2010 by the authors.


Minh N.H.,Center for Environment Monitoring | Vu-Anh L.,Vietnam Public Health Association | Dunne M.,Queensland University of Technology | Toms L.-M.,Queensland University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
International journal of hygiene and environmental health | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Bien Hoa and Da Nang airbases were bulk storages for Agent Orange during the Vietnam War and currently are the two most severe dioxin hot spots.OBJECTIVES: This study assesses the health risk of exposure to dioxin through foods for local residents living in seven wards surrounding these airbases.METHODS: This study follows the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the health risk of exposure to dioxin in foods. Forty-six pooled samples of commonly consumed local foods were collected and analyzed for dioxin/furans. A food frequency and Knowledge-Attitude-Practice survey was also undertaken at 1000 local households, various stakeholders were involved and related publications were reviewed.RESULTS: Total dioxin/furan concentrations in samples of local "high-risk" foods (e.g. free range chicken meat and eggs, ducks, freshwater fish, snail and beef) ranged from 3.8 pg TEQ/g to 95 pg TEQ/g, while in "low-risk" foods (e.g. caged chicken meat and eggs, seafoods, pork, leafy vegetables, fruits, and rice) concentrations ranged from 0.03 pg TEQ/g to 6.1 pg TEQ/g. Estimated daily intake of dioxin if people who did not consume local high risk foods ranged from 3.2 pg TEQ/kg bw/day to 6.2 pg TEQ/kg bw/day (Bien Hoa) and from 1.2 pg TEQ/kg bw/day to 4.3 pg TEQ/kg bw/day (Da Nang). Consumption of local high risk foods resulted in extremely high dioxin daily intakes (60.4-102.8 pg TEQ/kg bw/day in Bien Hoa; 27.0-148.0 pg TEQ/kg bw/day in Da Nang).CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of local "high-risk" foods increases dioxin daily intakes far above the WHO recommended TDI (1-4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day). Practicing appropriate preventive measures is necessary to significantly reduce exposure and health risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


Tuyet-Hanh T.T.,Queensland University of Technology | Minh N.H.,Center for Environment Monitoring | Vu-Anh L.,Vietnam Public Health Association | Dunne M.,Queensland University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2015

Background: Bien Hoa and Da Nang airbases were bulk storages for Agent Orange during the Vietnam War and currently are the two most severe dioxin hot spots. Objectives: This study assesses the health risk of exposure to dioxin through foods for local residents living in seven wards surrounding these airbases. Methods: This study follows the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the health risk of exposure to dioxin in foods. Forty-six pooled samples of commonly consumed local foods were collected and analyzed for dioxin/furans. A food frequency and Knowledge-Attitude-Practice survey was also undertaken at 1000 local households, various stakeholders were involved and related publications were reviewed. Results: Total dioxin/furan concentrations in samples of local "high-risk" foods (e.g. free range chicken meat and eggs, ducks, freshwater fish, snail and beef) ranged from 3.8. pg. TEQ/g to 95. pg. TEQ/g, while in "low-risk" foods (e.g. caged chicken meat and eggs, seafoods, pork, leafy vegetables, fruits, and rice) concentrations ranged from 0.03. pg. TEQ/g to 6.1. pg. TEQ/g. Estimated daily intake of dioxin if people who did not consume local high risk foods ranged from 3.2. pg. TEQ/kg. bw/day to 6.2. pg. TEQ/kg. bw/day (Bien Hoa) and from 1.2. pg. TEQ/kg. bw/day to 4.3. pg. TEQ/kg. bw/day (Da Nang). Consumption of local high risk foods resulted in extremely high dioxin daily intakes (60.4-102.8. pg. TEQ/kg. bw/day in Bien Hoa; 27.0-148.0. pg. TEQ/kg. bw/day in Da Nang). Conclusions: Consumption of local "high-risk" foods increases dioxin daily intakes far above the WHO recommended TDI (1-4. pg. TEQ/kg. bw/day). Practicing appropriate preventive measures is necessary to significantly reduce exposure and health risk. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.


Tuyet-Hanh T.T.,Queensland University of Technology | Vu-Anh L.,Vietnam Public Health Association | Dunne M.,Queensland University of Technology | Toms L.-M.,Queensland University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Global Public Health | Year: 2016

Bien Hoa Airbase was one of the bulk storage and supply facilities for defoliants during the Vietnam War. Environmental and biological samples taken around the airbase have elevated levels of dioxin. In 2007, a pre-intervention knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) survey of local residents living in Trung Dung and Tan Phong wards was undertaken regarding appropriate strategies to reduce dioxin exposure. A risk reduction programme was implemented in 2008 and post-intervention KAP surveys were undertaken in 2009 and 2013 to evaluate the longer term impacts. Quantitative assessment was undertaken via a KAP survey in 2013 among 600 local residents randomly selected from the two intervention wards and one control ward (Buu Long). Eight in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions were also undertaken for qualitative assessment. Most programme activities had ceased and dioxin risk communication activities had not been integrated into local routine health education programmes; however, main results generally remained and were better than that in Buu Long. In total, 48.2% of households undertook measures to prevent exposure, higher than those in pre- and post-intervention surveys (25.8% and 39.7%) and the control ward (7.7%). Migration and the sensitive nature of dioxin issues were the main challenges for the programme's sustainability. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Tuyet-Hanh T.T.,Queensland University of Technology | Vu-Anh L.,Vietnam Public Health Association | Dunne M.,Queensland University of Technology | Toms L.-M.,Queensland University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Community Health | Year: 2015

Severe dioxin contamination at Bien Hoa and Da Nang airbases, Vietnam is of international concern. Public Health risk reduction programs were implemented in Bien Hoa in 2007–2009 and in Da Nang in 2009–2011. In 2009 and 2011 we reported the encouraging results of these interventions in improving the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of local residents in reducing the dioxin exposure risk through foods. In 2013 we revisited these dioxin hot spots, aimed to evaluate whether the results of the intervention were maintained and to identify factors affecting the sustainability of the programs. To assess this, 16 in-depth interviews, six focus group discussions, and pre and post intervention KAP surveys were undertaken. 800 respondents from six intervention wards and 200 respondents from Buu Long Ward (the control site) were randomly selected to participate in the surveys. The results showed that as of 2013, the programs were rated as ‘‘moderately sustained’’ with a score of 3.3 out of 5.0 (cut off points 2.5 to < 3.5) for Bien Hoa, and ‘‘well sustained’’ with a score of 3.8 out of 5.0 (cut off points 3.5 to < 4.5) for Da Nang. Most formal intervention program activities had ceased and dioxin risk communication activities were no longer integrated into local routine health education programs. However, the main outcomes were maintained and were better than that in the control ward. Migration, lack of official guidance from City People’s Committees and local authorities as well as the politically sensitive nature of dioxin issues were the main challenges for the sustainability of the programs. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA).

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