Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

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Hossain M.M.,Chittagong University | Kant R.,Panjab University | Van P.T.,Ehime University | Van P.T.,Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

This review provides an informative and broad overview of orchid biotechnology, addressing several important aspects such as molecular systematics, modern breeding, in vitro morphogenesis, protoplast culture, flowering control, flower color, somaclonal variation, orchid mycorrhiza, pathogen resistance, virus diagnosis and production of virus-free plants, functional genomics, genetic transformation, conservation biotechnology and pharmaceutical biotechnology. This resource will provide valuable insight to researchers who are involved in orchid biology and floriculture, using biotechnology to advance research objectives. Producing an improved orchid through biotechnology for industrial purposes or to serve as a model plant for pure and applied sciences is well within reach and many of the current techniques and systems are already employed at the commercial production level. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Teixeira Da Silva J.A.,Kagawa University | Chin D.P.,Chiba University | Van P.T.,Ehime University | Van P.T.,Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Sciences | Mii M.,Chiba University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Breeding orchids through traditional means is a lengthy process. Therefore, it would be advantageous if transgenic technologies could be applied for orchids to improve important traits such as novel flower colour, fragrance and shape, cut-flower longevity and flowering control, abiotic stress tolerance and resistance to pests and diseases. Even though there are several genetic transformation techniques available to orchid breeders, only two (Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and particle bombardment) have been successfully and consistently used thus far. This review aims to capture the full range of studies conducted on orchid transformation with a view of providing new perspectives for future molecular breeding programmes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Van P.T.,Ehime University | Teixeira da Silva J.A.,Kagawa University | Ham L.H.,Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Sciences | Tanaka M.,Kagawa University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Magnetic fields (MFs) have been applied for the first time in orchid micropropagation. Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) - approximately 3mm in diameter - first derived from leaf segment culture of Phalaenopsis Gallant Beau 'George Vazquez', were subcultured every 2 months, and served as initial explants. The proliferation of Phalaenopsis PLBs in liquid medium in the Miracle Pack ® culture system was affected by the action of different intensities and polarities of MFs: 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2Tesla (T) at North (N) and South (S) poles. The MF of 0.1T - S resulted in the greatest fresh weight of regenerated PLBs. The average number of neo-PLBs formed per clusters in the PLB treated by MF: 0.1-0.2T was decreased compared to the control exposed to natural MF (5×10 -6T). The proliferation of PLBs under 0.15T - MF at both N and S poles for 2 and 7 weeks demonstrated that a longer duration of exposure to an MF of 0.15T, regardless of the polarity, resulted in greater biomass of newly formed PLBs and smaller average number of newly formed PLBs. The S pole of MF had stronger effects on Phalaenopsis PLBs proliferation than the N pole did in all treatments. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Le D.T.,RIKEN | Le D.T.,Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Sciences | Nishiyama R.,RIKEN | Watanabe Y.,RIKEN | And 3 more authors.
DNA Research | Year: 2011

Two-component systems (TCSs) play vital functions in the adaptation of plants to environmental stresses. To identify soybean TCS genes involved in the regulation of drought stress response, we performed tissue-specific expression profiling of all 83 putative TCS genes in plants subjected to dehydration. Under well-watered conditions, the majority of soybean TCS genes were expressed higher in the root tissues. Additionally, a high variability in transcript abundance was observed for the TCS genes in both roots and shoots. Under dehydration, TCS genes were more responsive in shoots than in roots. Further analysis indicated that 50 more TCS genes were repressed by dehydration than induced. Specifically, 18 genes were induced by 2-fold or more, whereas 33 genes were down-regulated at least 2-fold by dehydration. TCS genes putatively involved in cytokinin and ethylene signallings strongly responded to dehydration, suggesting that crosstalk exists between different hormonal and stress pathways. Our study provides the first glance into the complex regulatory roles of soybean TCSs underlying their functions in response to dehydration. Additionally, these systematic expression analyses identified excellent dehydration-responsive candidate genes to further clarify soybean TCS functions in drought response and to enable the development of improved drought tolerance in transgenic soybeans. © 2010 The Author.

Le D.T.,RIKEN | Le D.T.,Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Sciences | Nishiyama R.,RIKEN | Watanabe Y.,RIKEN | And 3 more authors.
DNA Research | Year: 2011

Plant-specific NAC transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in regulating diverse biological processes, including development, senescence, growth, cell division and responses to environmental stress stimuli. Within the soybean genome, we identified 152 full-length GmNAC TFs, including 11 membrane-bound members. In silico analysis of the GmNACs, together with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts, revealed similar NAC architecture. Next, we explored the soybean Affymetrix array and Illumina transcriptome sequence data to analyse tissue-specific expression profiles of GmNAC genes. Phylogenetic analysis using stress-related NAC TFs from Arabidopsis and rice as seeding sequences identified 58 of the 152 GmNACs as putative stress-responsive genes, including eight previously reported dehydration-responsive GmNACs. We could design gene-specific primers for quantitative real-time PCR verification of 38 out of 50 newly predicted stress-related genes. Twenty-five and six GmNACs were found to be induced and repressed 2-fold or more, respectively, in soybean roots and/or shoots in response to dehydration. GmNAC085, whose amino acid sequence was 39; identical to that of well-known SNAC1/ONAC2, was the most induced gene upon dehydration, showing 390-fold and 20-fold induction in shoots and roots, respectively. Our systematic analysis has identified excellent tissue-specific and/or dehydration-responsive candidate GmNAC genes for in-depth characterization and future development of improved drought-tolerant transgenic soybeans. © 2011 The Author.

Puig J.,Montpellier University | Pauluzzi G.,Montpellier University | Guiderdoni E.,CI RAD | Gantet P.,Montpellier University | Gantet P.,Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Molecular Plant | Year: 2012

Plants adjust their development in relation to the availability of nutrient sources. This necessitates signaling between root and shoot. Aside from the well-known systemic signaling processes mediated by auxin, cytokinin, and sugars, new pathways involving carotenoid-derived hormones have recently been identified. The auxin-responsive MAX pathway controls shoot branching through the biosynthesis of strigolactone in the roots. The BYPASS1 gene affects the production of an as-yet unknown carotenoid-derived substance in roots that promotes shoot development. Novel local and systemic mechanisms that control adaptive root development in response to nitrogen and phosphorus starvation were recently discovered. Notably, the ability of the NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1.1 to transport auxin drew for the first time a functional link between auxin, root development, and nitrate availability in soil. The study of plant response to phosphorus starvation allowed the identification of a systemic mobile miRNA. Deciphering and integrating these signaling pathways at the whole-plant level provide a new perspective for understanding how plants regulate their development in response to environmental cues. © The Author 2012. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

Nguyen G.N.,Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Sciences | Hailstones D.L.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Wilkes M.,University of Sydney | Sutton B.G.,University of Sydney
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2010

Rice plants exposed to three consecutive days of water stress (-0.5 MPa) show a reduction in male fertility and grain set, which is attributed to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of a programmed cell death. This current research was conducted to further investigate the association of sugar metabolism with microspore abortion in rice anthers. Biochemical assays showed that sucrose, glucose and fructose contents were found to be significantly increased in anthers from water stressed plants compared with the control. qRT-PCR analyses and in situ hybridization of metabolic genes (sugar transporters, invertase and phosphotransferase/kinases) demonstrated that the supply of sugars for developing microspores and the initial steps of sugar utilization e.g. glycolysis, were not repressed. However, it appears that the accumulation of sugars in stressed anthers might involve a reduction of mitochondrial activity during the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which could result in excessive production of ROS and a depletion of the ATP pool. These results also suggest that higher levels of sugars at all stages of anther development seemed to be associated with some measure of protection to the anthers against oxidative stress. Induced expression of sugar transporter genes might have maintained the high levels of sugar in the tapetum and the locules, which alleviated oxidant damage caused by excessive ROS generation. Thus, the increased level of sugars might potentially be a natural response in providing protection against oxidant damage by strengthening the antioxidant system in anthers. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Kere M.,National Chung Hsing University | Siriboon C.,National Chung Hsing University | Lo N.-W.,Tunghai University | Nguyen N.T.,Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Sciences | Ju J.-C.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2013

In this study, a dose-response assessment was performed to understand the relation between supplementation of media with L-ascorbic acid or vitamin C and porcine oocyte maturation and the in vitro development of parthenotes (PA) and handmade cloned (HMC) embryos. Various concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml) of vitamin C supplemented in in vitro maturation (IVM) and culture (IVC) media were tested. None of these vitamin C additions affected nuclear maturation of oocytes, yet supplementation at 50 μg/ml led to signifcantly increased intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS). When cultured in IVM- and/or IVC-supplemented media, the group supplemented with 50 μg/ ml of vitamin C showed improved cleavage rates, blastocyst rates and total cell numbers per blastocyst (P<0.05) compared with other groups (control, 25 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml). In contrast, supplementation with 50 μg/ml vitamin C decreased (P<0.05) the apoptosis index as compared with the groups supplemented with 100 μg/ml. In addition, even with a lower blastocyst rate to start with (37.6 vs. 50.3%, P<0.05), supplementation of HMC embryos with vitamin C ameliorated their blastocyst quality to the extent of PA embryos as indicated by their total cell numbers (61.2 vs. 59.1). Taken together, an optimized concentration of vitamin C supplementation in the medium not only improves blastocyst rates and total cell numbers but also reduces apoptotic indices, whereas overdosages compromise various aspects of the development of parthenotes and cloned porcine embryos. © 2013 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.

Nishiyama R.,RIKEN | Le D.T.,RIKEN | Le D.T.,Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Sciences | Watanabe Y.,RIKEN | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Soil destruction by abiotic environmental conditions, such as high salinity, has resulted in dramatic losses of arable land, giving rise to the need of studying mechanisms of plant adaptation to salt stress aimed at creating salt-tolerant plants. Recently, it has been reported that cytokinins (CKs) regulate plant environmental stress responses through two-component systems. A decrease in endogenous CK levels could enhance salt and drought stress tolerance. Here, we have investigated the global transcriptional change caused by a reduction in endogenous CK content under both normal and salt stress conditions. Ten-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (WT) and CK-deficient ipt1,3,5,7 plants were transferred to agar plates containing either 0 mM (control) or 200 mM NaCl and maintained at normal growth conditions for 24 h. Our experimental design allowed us to compare transcriptome changes under four conditions: WT-200 mM vs. WT-0 mM, ipt1,3,5,7-0 mM vs. WT-0 mM, ipt1,3,5,7-200 mM vs. ipt1,3,5,7-0 mM and ipt1,3,5,7-200 mM vs. WT-200 mM NaCl. Our results indicated that the expression of more than 10% of all of the annotated Arabidopsis genes was altered by CK deficiency under either normal or salt stress conditions when compared to WT. We found that upregulated expression of many genes encoding either regulatory proteins, such as NAC, DREB and ZFHD transcription factors and the calcium sensor SOS3, or functional proteins, such as late embryogenesis-abundant proteins, xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases, glycosyltransferases, glycoside hydrolases, defensins and glyoxalase I family proteins, may contribute to improved salt tolerance of CK-deficient plants. We also demonstrated that the downregulation of photosynthesis-related genes and the upregulation of several NAC genes may cause the altered morphological phenotype of CK-deficient plants. This study highlights the impact of CK regulation on the well-known stress-responsive signaling pathways, which regulate plant adaptation to high salinity as well as other environmental stresses. © 2012 Nishiyama et al.

Lefroy R.,Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Appropriate Technology | Year: 2013

Farmers in Vietnam's central highlands or Tay Nguyen have tried various systems of farming to make a living such as coffee production and livestock, but nothing has been a success. Farmers are now trying cattle again but managing them in a different way, with success. The system hinges on confining cattle to lots and providing them with high quality feed. Extension workers recommend that part of the cropland is planted with nutritious forages suited to the area, such as varieties of elephant and napier grass, brachiaria and stylo. Also, farmers are encouraged to invest in more productive crossbreeds that respond better to the improved nutrition. The forages are cut and carried to the lots twice-a-day as part of an intensive fattening program which lasts around six months per animal. The legacy of coffee lives on though: an irrigation reservoir built for Chu Cuc's coffee plantations now serves dry-season forage cultivation.

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