Time filter

Source Type

Georgiadis A.,Brunel University | Georgiadis A.,University of Oxford | Benny L.,University of Oxford | Duc L.T.,Vietnam Academy of Social science | And 3 more authors.
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2017

Child chronic undernutrition, as measured by stunting, is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries and is among the major threats to child development. While stunting and its implications for cognitive development have been considered irreversible beyond early childhood there is a lack of consensus in the literature on this as there is some evidence of recovery from stunting and that this recovery may be associated with improvements in cognition. Less is known however, about the drivers of growth recovery and the aspects of recovery linked to cognitive development. In this paper we investigate the factors associated with growth recovery and faltering through age 12 years and the implications of the incidence, timing, and persistence of post-infancy recovery from stunting for cognitive development using longitudinal data from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We find that the factors most systematically associated with accelerated growth both before and after early childhood and across countries include mother's height, household living standards and shocks, community wages, food prices, and garbage collection. Our results suggest that post-infancy recovery from stunting is more likely to be systematically associated with higher achievement scores across countries when it is persistent and that associations between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement in middle childhood do not persist through early adolescence across countries. Overall, our findings support that growth after early childhood is responsive to changes in the household and community environments and that growth promotion after early childhood may yield improvements in child cognitive development. © 2017 The Authors


Georgiadis A.,University of Oxford | Benny L.,University of Oxford | Crookston B.T.,Brigham Young University | Duc L.T.,Vietnam Academy of Social science | And 6 more authors.
SSM - Population Health | Year: 2016

Child chronic malnutrition is endemic in low- and middle-income countries and deleterious for child development. Studies investigating the relationship between nutrition at different periods of childhood, as measured by growth in these periods (growth trajectories), and cognitive development have produced mixed evidence. Although an explanation of this has been that different studies use different approaches to model growth trajectories, the differences across approaches are not well understood. Furthermore, little is known about the pathways linking growth trajectories and cognitive achievement. In this paper, we develop and estimate a general path model of the relationship between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement using data on four cohorts from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. The model is used to: (a) compare two of the most common approaches to modelling growth trajectories in the literature, namely the lifecourse plot and the conditional body size model, and (b) investigate the potential channels via which the association between growth in each period and cognitive achievement manifests. We show that the two approaches are expected to produce systematically different results that have distinct interpretations. Results suggest that growth from conception through age 1 year, between age 1 and 5 years, and between 5 and 8 years, are each positively and significantly associated with cognitive achievement at age 8 years and that this may be partly explained by the fact that faster-growing children start school earlier. We also find that a significant share of the association between early growth and later cognitive achievement is mediated through growth in interim periods. © 2016 The Authors.


PubMed | University of Pennsylvania, Vietnam Academy of Social science, Emory University, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: SSM - population health | Year: 2016

Child chronic malnutrition is endemic in low- and middle-income countries and deleterious for child development. Studies investigating the relationship between nutrition at different periods of childhood, as measured by growth in these periods (growth trajectories), and cognitive development have produced mixed evidence. Although an explanation of this has been that different studies use different approaches to model growth trajectories, the differences across approaches are not well understood. Furthermore, little is known about the pathways linking growth trajectories and cognitive achievement. In this paper, we develop and estimate a general path model of the relationship between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement using data on four cohorts from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. The model is used to: a) compare two of the most common approaches of modelling growth trajectories in the literature, namely the lifecourse plot and the conditional body size model, and b) investigate the potential channels via which the association between growth in each period and cognitive achievement manifests. We show that the two approaches are expected to produce systematically different results that have distinct interpretations. Results suggest that growth from conception through age 1 year, between age 1 and 5 years, and between 5 and 8 years are each positively and significantly associated with cognitive achievement at age 8 years and that this may be partly explained by the fact that faster-growing children start school earlier. We also find that a significant share of the association between early growth and later cognitive achievement is mediated through growth in interim periods.


Daniere A.,University of Toronto | Drummond L.,York University | NaRanong A.,National Institute of Development Administration | Tran V.A.T.,Vietnam Academy of Social science
Journal of Environment and Development | Year: 2016

There is widespread recognition that cities in the Global South need to transition toward sustainable water practices. This is particularly true of places experiencing growth and impacts from climate change concomitantly, as are Bangkok and Hanoi. We evaluate case studies in each of these two Southeast Asian cities to explore possible sustainable water management practices that their urban communities, and others experiencing similar issues, could adopt in the near term. Our analysis of these case studies supports four key conclusions: Simple expansion of rigid infrastructure does not necessarily meet local needs for water, communities can themselves provide insights and creative models, governments at any scale can be flexible and such flexibility can achieve appropriate solutions, and small-scale experimentation can and does work and can be successfully scaled up with government encouragement and support. © 2016, © The Author(s) 2016.


Kompas T.,Australian National University | Che T.N.,Australian National University | Nguyen H.T.M.,Australian National University | Nguyen H.T.M.,Vietnam Academy of Social science | Nguyen H.Q.,University of Canberra
Land Economics | Year: 2012

Extensive land and market reform in Vietnam has resulted in dramatic increases in rice output and incomes. This is illustrated with measures of total factor productivity, net incomes, and net returns in rice production from 1985 to 2006. Results show considerable gains in major rice growing areas, but recent evidence of a productivity slowdown. The differences over time and region speak to existing land use practice, calling for further reform. Estimations detail the effects of remaining institutional and policy constraints, including existing restrictions on land use, ambiguous property rights, and inadequate markets for land and access to extension services and credit. © 2012 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.


Pells K.,University of Oxford | Wilson E.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Thi Thu Hang N.,Vietnam Academy of Social science
Global Public Health | Year: 2016

Understandings of women's agency in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been dominated by an individualistic focus on help-seeking behaviour. The role of children in influencing, enabling and restricting the decision-making processes of their mothers has been largely ignored. We adopt biographical analytical approaches to qualitative longitudinal data collected as part of the Young Lives study to highlight the interdependency of women's and children's agency in contexts of IPV in Vietnam. We illustrate how women's agency is both enabled and constrained by their relationships with their children, as well as by wider structural processes, and examine how gender and generation intersect. In marginalised settings where few formal services exist or strong social norms preclude women from accessing support, understanding these informal coping strategies and the processes by which these are negotiated is essential for developing more effective policy responses. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


PubMed | Vietnam Academy of Social science, University of Oxford and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Global public health | Year: 2015

Understandings of womens agency in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been dominated by an individualistic focus on help-seeking behaviour. The role of children in influencing, enabling and restricting the decision-making processes of their mothers has been largely ignored. We adopt biographical analytical approaches to qualitative longitudinal data collected as part of the Young Lives study to highlight the interdependency of womens and childrens agency in contexts of IPV in Vietnam. We illustrate how womens agency is both enabled and constrained by their relationships with their children, as well as by wider structural processes, and examine how gender and generation intersect. In marginalised settings where few formal services exist or strong social norms preclude women from accessing support, understanding these informal coping strategies and the processes by which these are negotiated is essential for developing more effective policy responses.


Bellwood P.,Australian National University | Oxenham M.,Australian National University | Hoang B.C.,Southern Institute of Sustainable Development | Dzung N.K.,Vietnam Academy of Social science | And 18 more authors.
Asian Perspectives | Year: 2011

Between 4500 and 3500 years ago, partially intrusive Neolithic populations in the riverine basins of mainland Southeast Asia began to form mounded settlements and to develop economies based on rice cultivation, fishing, hunting, and the domestication of animals, especially pigs and dogs. A number of these sites have been excavated in recent years and they are often large mounds that can attain several meters in depth, comprising successive layers of alluvial soil brought in periodically to serve as living floors. The site of An Son is of this type and lies in a small valley immediately north of the Mekong Delta in southern Vietnam. Excavated on five occasions since 1978, and most recently in 2009, it was occupied from the late third into the late second millennium b.c. An Son has produced evidence that attests the domestication of pigs and dogs in all layers apart (perhaps) from the most basal one, which was not investigated in 2009, together with the growing of rice of the subspecies Oryza sativa japonica, of Chinese Neolithic origin. The oldest pottery has simple incised and punctate zoned decoration with parallels in central Thailand, especially in the basal phases at Nong Nor and Khok Phanom Di. From its middle and later occupation phases (1800-1200 b.c.), An Son has produced a number of supine extended burials with finely decorated pottery grave goods that carry some unique forms, especially vessels with wavy or serrated rims. The An Son burials represent a Neolithic population that expressed a mixture of both indigenous Hoabinhian and more northerly (probably Neolithic southern Chinese) cranial and dental phenotypes, perhaps representing a likely ancestral population for some of the modern Austroasiatic-speaking populations of mainland Southeast Asia. © 2013 by the University of Hawai'i Press.


Lukyanets A.S.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Nguen T.K.,Vietnam Academy of Social science | Ryazantsev S.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Tikunov V.S.,Moscow State University | Pham H.H.,Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
Geography and Natural Resources | Year: 2015

We examine the influence of climatic changes on migration processes in Vietnam, one of the most densely populated countries of the world. The study revealed provinces and districts that are experiencing the strongest climatic changes and determined the consequences for the country from the perspective of its geographical characteristics. Climate change on a global scale will be of differentiated significance for different countries of the world. The nation states situated in the middle part of the mainland may not experience the ongoing processes. On the contrary, for countries with a large coastal zone, especially for island countries, the consequences would be disastrous. As a result of climate change, Vietnam has faced with new challenges and threats. The distinctive characteristics of the geographical location, topography of the territory and of the demographic potential dictated a need to revise the existing policy of population distribution on the country’s territory. The recent increasingly frequent negative natural phenomena, caused by climate change, will require, on a mid-term horizon, developing a new concept of Vietnam’s migration policy largely focusing on the population relocation from potentially hazardous places of residence, primarily from coastal areas. If the most unfavorable forecasts come true, the country will have to relocate millions of people. In view of the country’s limited territory, thousands of people would look for a new place of residence in other countries. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Duy Luan T.,Vietnam Academy of Social science
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2014

Under the impacts of the socio-economic transition in Vietnam in the last decades, residential patterns in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam, have substantially changed from the 'Collective Living Quarter' (KTT) which embodied the old socialist period to the "New Urban Area" (NUA); a new type of large scale urban development promoted since the late 1990s. Hundreds of such NUAs have spread over Hanoi, mostly in the outskirts. Lacking social infrastructure, having a bad connection to the city centre and lacking public services, many NUAs run the risk of becoming merely 'sleeping' townships without the vibrant urban life which is characteristic for the older parts of Hanoi. Housing costs in these areas are also too high for the average Vietnamese. Based on a recent survey, the paper presents an analysis that there is an imbalance between the built environment and social organization in the NUAs in Hanoi at the present time. On the one hand, the residents are not happy with inadequate public services, housing quality, as well as unprofessional management manner; on the other hand, the residents are happy with the improved living environment compared to what they had before in the old KTTs and intend to live permanently in the chosen NUAs. Most interestingly, the traditional community spirit observed in the old KTTs can actually be found in the NUAs. The paper concludes that despite the shortcomings in the built environment and management, there is a high potential for social and community cohesion in the NUAs. The community spirit among the residents is likely to have the power to transform these areas into vibrant urban spaces. © 2014 WIT Press.

Loading Vietnam Academy of Social science collaborators
Loading Vietnam Academy of Social science collaborators