Bui T.G.T.,Vietnam Academy of Agricultural science |
Hoa N.T.L.,Vietnam Academy of Agricultural science |
Yen J.-Y.,World Vegetable Center |
Schafleitner R.,World Vegetable Center
Hereditas | Year: 2017
Background: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are the method of choice for genetic analyses including diversity and quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies. Marker validation is essential for QTL studies, but the cost and workload are considerable when large numbers of markers need to be verified. Marker systems with low development costs would be most suitable for this task. Results: We have tested allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), tetra markers and a genotyping tool based on the single strand specific nuclease CEL-I to verify randomly selected SNP markers identified previously either with a SNP array or by genotyping by sequencing in rice and mungbean, respectively. The genotyping capacity of allele-specific PCR and tetra markers was affected by the sequence context surrounding the SNP; SNPs located in repeated sequences and in GC-rich stretches could not be correctly identified. In contrast, CEL-I digestion of mixed fragments produced from test and reference DNA reliably pinpointed the correct genotypes, yet scoring of the genotypes became complicated when multiple SNPs were present in the PCR fragments. A cost analysis showed that as long the sample number remains small, CEL-I genotyping is more cost-effective than tetra markers. Conclusions: CEL-I genotyping performed better in terms of genotyping accuracy and costs than tetra markers. The method is highly useful for validating SNPs in small to medium size germplasm panels. © The Author(s). 2017.
Schreinemachers P.,World Vegetable Center |
Srinivasan R.,World Vegetable Center |
Wu M.-H.,World Vegetable Center |
Bhattarai M.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics |
And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science | Year: 2014
Vegetable legumes are important crops in tropical agriculture, but they are susceptible to a substantial number of arthropod pests and diseases. Using farm-level survey data for 240 farm households growing yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Thailand and Vietnam, this study shows that the farmers' main problem is the legume pod borer (Maruca vitrata). Farmers rely exclusively on the use of synthetic pesticides to manage this pest, and no other control methods are generally applied. Small cultivated areas for growing yard-long bean (particularly in Vietnam), a high level of satisfaction with the use of pesticides and a lack of market demand for pesticide-free produce are formidable challenges to the introduction of integrated pest management (IPM). It is important to ensure that IPM methods, if adopted, do not reduce profits and that farmers are allowed to experiment with these methods while raising awareness in the general population about the risk resulting from pesticide exposure. © icipe 2014.
Hien N.T.,Hanoi University |
van Toan P.,Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Science |
Choudhury A.T.M.A.,University of Sydney |
Rose M.T.,Monash University |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2014
Biofertilizer research for rice in Vietnam has focused on the isolation and selection of strains that can fix nitrogen, solubilize inorganic phosphates, stimulate plant growth, and breakdown soil organic matter. This paper assesses the consistent positive effect of BioGro on grain yield and agronomic parameters, including the rates and times for its application, the need for continued inoculation of crops grown in the same site, varietal differences, and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) combinations on the effectiveness of BioGro. The commercial biofertilizer, BioGro, consists of four strains, one formerly considered as nitrogen fixing, Pseudomonas fluorescens, a soil yeast strain, Candida tropicalis is P-solubilizing, and two other bacilli, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis, potentially breaking down cellulose, protein, and starch. All four strains contribute to plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) effect as shown by enhanced root growth. BioGro can be produced in local factories providing there is technical backup in the supply of starter culture and quality control of the final product. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Irving D.E.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries |
Newman S.M.,Vietnam Academy of Agricultural science |
Ramita I.,National Agricultural Research Institute
Stewart Postharvest Review | Year: 2011
Purpose of review: This review highlights the importance of varieties in the Papua New Guinea highland sweetpotato value chain in relation to postharvest management, the need for quality specifications, recognition of consumer preferences and effective marketing. Findings: Technical and socio-economic factors limit the quality of sweetpotato roots sold to consumers. The " informal" (local) market is characterised by polypropylene sacks containing 100 kg or more, of roots, no formal crop specifications, and no temperature management, but since consumption is relatively soon after harvest, and the market of lower value, low technology input is appropriate. The " formal" market is centred on the major cities of Lae and Port Moresby, and it may be several days after harvest before the crop is delivered. Although it is not widely recognised, sweetpotato roots are very perishable. For the higher value market, true-to-label varieties, packaging (smaller solid-walled boxes), a cool chain all the way to the consumers, market intelligence from the market back to the farmer, and maintenance of the road infrastructure, all need implementation. Varieties are but one small part of the picture. Directions for future research: Implementation of low cost technologies, such as on-farm curing and some basic quality standards need to be researched. Investigating the costs associated with establishment of a cool chain management system in the highlands, packaging management (smaller solid-walled containers), ways to retain consumer interest in sweetpotato products (such as new and colourful varieties, and preparation methods), and industrial uses for lower quality or otherwise waste roots, are all areas where further information is needed to maintain quality and enable the sweetpotato industry to become more profitable. © 2011 Stewart Postharvest Solutions (UK) Ltd.
Giang C.H.,Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Science |
Osatiashtiani A.,Aston University |
dos Santos V.C.,Federal University of Paraná |
Lee A.F.,Aston University |
And 3 more authors.
Catalysts | Year: 2014
A family of tungstated zirconia solid acid catalysts were synthesised via wet impregnation and subsequent thermochemical processing for the transformation of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Acid strength increased with tungsten loading and calcination temperature, associated with stabilisation of tetragonal zirconia. High tungsten dispersions of between 2 and 7 W atoms·nm−2 were obtained in all cases, equating to sub-monolayer coverages. Glucose isomerisation and subsequent dehydration via fructose to HMF increased with W loading and calcination temperature up to 600 °C, indicating that glucose conversion to fructose was favoured over weak Lewis acid and/or base sites associated with the zirconia support, while fructose dehydration and HMF formation was favoured over Brönsted acidic WOx clusters. Aqueous phase reforming of steam exploded rice straw hydrolysate and condensate was explored heterogeneously for the first time over a 10 wt% WZ catalyst, resulting in excellent HMF yields as high as 15% under mild reaction conditions. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Dung P.N.,National Institute for Plant Protection |
Cuong H.V.,Hanoi University of Agriculture |
van Tuat N.,Vietnam Academy of Agricultural science |
Matsumoto M.,Kyushu University
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2014
Phytophthora quick wilt is a devastating disease of black peppers in Vietnam. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA of four Phytophthora samples isolated from the diseased vines in Daknong province of the central highland part of Vietnam was Polymerase chain reaction-amplified, cloned, sequenced and characterised. Database search have showed that they are most closely related to an isolate of Phytophthora tropicalis from Taiwan. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses based on the ITS region of the four Vietnamese and other GenBank isolates of P. tropicalis and a closely related species, P. capsici, provide strong evidences that the Vietnamese isolates are all different isolates of P. tropicalis. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Wood I.P.,UK Institute of Food Research |
Cao H.-G.,Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Science |
Tran L.,Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Science |
Cook N.,Earlham Institute |
And 6 more authors.
Biotechnology for Biofuels | Year: 2016
Background: Rice cultivation produces two waste streams, straw and husk, which could be exploited more effectively. Chemical pretreatment studies using rice residues have largely focussed on straw exploitation alone, and often at low substrate concentrations. Moreover, it is currently not known how rice husk, the more recalcitrant residue, responds to steam explosion without the addition of chemicals. Results: The aim of this study has been to systematically compare the effects of steam explosion severity on the enzymatic saccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of rice straw and husk produced from a variety widely grown in Vietnam (Oryza sativa, cv. KhangDan18). Rice straw and husk were steam exploded (180-230 °C for 10 min) into hot water and washed to remove fermentation inhibitors. In both cases, pretreatment at 210 °C and above removed most of the noncellulosic sugars. Prolonged saccharification at high cellulase doses showed that rice straw could be saccharified most effectively after steam explosion at 210 °C for 10 min. In contrast, rice husk required more severe pretreatment conditions (220 °C for 10 min), and achieved a much lower yield (75 %), even at optimal conditions. Rice husk also required a higher cellulase dose for optimal saccharification (10 instead of 6 FPU/g DM). Hemicellulase addition failed to improve saccharification. Small pilot scale saccharification at 20 % (w/v) substrate loading in a 10 L high torque bioreactor resulted in similarly high glucose yields for straw (reaching 9 % w/v), but much less for husk. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under optimal pretreatment and saccharification conditions showed similar trends, but the ethanol yield from the rice husk was less than 40 % of the theoretical yield. Conclusions: Despite having similar carbohydrate compositions, pretreated rice husk is much less amenable to saccharification than pretreated rice straw. This is likely to attenuate its use as a biorefinery feedstock unless improvements can be made either in the feedstock through breeding and/or modern biotechnology, or in the pretreatment through the employment of improved or alternative technologies. Physiological differences in the overall chemistry or structure may provide clues to the nature of lignocellulosic recalcitrance. © 2016 The Author(s).
Tran T.D.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research |
Tran T.D.,Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Science |
Simkova H.,Institute of Experimental Botany |
Schmidt R.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research |
And 4 more authors.
Chromosoma | Year: 2016
Genlisea margaretae, subgenus Genlisea, section Recurvatae (184 Mbp/1C), belongs to a plant genus with a 25-fold genome size difference and an extreme genome plasticity. Its 19 chromosome pairs could be distinguished individually by an approach combining optimized probe pooling and consecutive rounds of multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mcFISH) with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) selected for repeat-free inserts. Fifty-one BACs were assigned to 18 chromosome pairs. They provide a tool for future assignment of genomic sequence contigs to distinct chromosomes as well as for identification of homeologous chromosome regions in other species of the carnivorous Lentibulariaceae family, and potentially of chromosome rearrangements, in cases where more than one BAC per chromosome pair was identified. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Reardon T.,Renmin University of China |
Reardon T.,Michigan State University |
Reardon T.,International Food Policy Research Institute |
Chen K.Z.,International Food Policy Research Institute |
And 5 more authors.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2014
There is a rapid transformation afoot in the rice value chain in Asia. The upstream is changing quickly-farmers are undertaking capital-led intensification and participating in burgeoning markets for land rental, fertilizer and pesticides, irrigation water, and seed, and shifting from subsistence to small commercialized farms; in some areas landholdings are concentrating. Midstream, in wholesale and milling, there is a quiet revolution underway, with thousands of entrepreneurs investing in equipment, increasing scale, diversifying into higher quality, and the segments are undergoing consolidation and vertical coordination and integration. Mills, especially in China, are packaging and branding, and building agent networks in wholesale markets, and large mills are building direct relationships with supermarkets. The downstream retail segment is undergoing a "supermarket revolution," again with the lead in change in China. In most cases the government is not playing a direct role in the market, but enabling this transformation through infrastructural investment. The transformation appears to be improving food security for cities by reducing margins, offering lower consumer rice prices, and increasing quality and diversity of rice. This paper discusses findings derived from unique stacked surveys of all value chain segments in seven zones, more and less developed, around Bangladesh, China, India, and Vietnam. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Hoai T.T.T.,Kyushu University |
Hoai T.T.T.,Vietnam Academy of Agricultural science |
Suu T.D.,Vietnam Academy of Agricultural science |
Satoh H.,Kyushu University |
Kumamaru T.,Kyushu University
Plant Breeding | Year: 2014
The diversity of glutelin acidic polypeptides in rice cultivars collected from Northern Vietnam was characterized via sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and isoelectric focusing (IEF) electrophoresis. Glutelin acidic subunits were separated into four bands by molecular mass, as α-1 (39 kDa), α-2 (38 kDa), α-3 (37.5 or 37 kDa) and α-4 (34 or 33 kDa). One hundred and eighty-five Vietnamese rice cultivars were divided into three types, based on differences in staining intensity and the molecular size of the α-3 and α-4 polypeptides derived from SDS-PAGE analysis. Wide variation was also observed in the isoelectric point (pI) staining intensity, in addition to the absence/presence of pI bands detected via IEF analysis. A total of 16 pI bands, ranging from pI 6.30 to pI 7.52, were identified in the various local rice cultivars. The maximum and minimum of IEF bands detected were 14 and 10, respectively. The genetic variability index (H) ranged from 0.280 to 0.820, which confirms that local rice cultivars from Northern Vietnam have diverse glutelin seed storage units. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.