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Irving D.E.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Newman S.M.,Vietnam Academy of Agricultural science | Ramita I.,National Agricultural Research Institute
Stewart Postharvest Review

Purpose of review: This review highlights the importance of varieties in the Papua New Guinea highland sweetpotato value chain in relation to postharvest management, the need for quality specifications, recognition of consumer preferences and effective marketing. Findings: Technical and socio-economic factors limit the quality of sweetpotato roots sold to consumers. The " informal" (local) market is characterised by polypropylene sacks containing 100 kg or more, of roots, no formal crop specifications, and no temperature management, but since consumption is relatively soon after harvest, and the market of lower value, low technology input is appropriate. The " formal" market is centred on the major cities of Lae and Port Moresby, and it may be several days after harvest before the crop is delivered. Although it is not widely recognised, sweetpotato roots are very perishable. For the higher value market, true-to-label varieties, packaging (smaller solid-walled boxes), a cool chain all the way to the consumers, market intelligence from the market back to the farmer, and maintenance of the road infrastructure, all need implementation. Varieties are but one small part of the picture. Directions for future research: Implementation of low cost technologies, such as on-farm curing and some basic quality standards need to be researched. Investigating the costs associated with establishment of a cool chain management system in the highlands, packaging management (smaller solid-walled containers), ways to retain consumer interest in sweetpotato products (such as new and colourful varieties, and preparation methods), and industrial uses for lower quality or otherwise waste roots, are all areas where further information is needed to maintain quality and enable the sweetpotato industry to become more profitable. © 2011 Stewart Postharvest Solutions (UK) Ltd. Source

Reardon T.,Renmin University of China | Reardon T.,Michigan State University | Reardon T.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Chen K.Z.,International Food Policy Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

There is a rapid transformation afoot in the rice value chain in Asia. The upstream is changing quickly-farmers are undertaking capital-led intensification and participating in burgeoning markets for land rental, fertilizer and pesticides, irrigation water, and seed, and shifting from subsistence to small commercialized farms; in some areas landholdings are concentrating. Midstream, in wholesale and milling, there is a quiet revolution underway, with thousands of entrepreneurs investing in equipment, increasing scale, diversifying into higher quality, and the segments are undergoing consolidation and vertical coordination and integration. Mills, especially in China, are packaging and branding, and building agent networks in wholesale markets, and large mills are building direct relationships with supermarkets. The downstream retail segment is undergoing a "supermarket revolution," again with the lead in change in China. In most cases the government is not playing a direct role in the market, but enabling this transformation through infrastructural investment. The transformation appears to be improving food security for cities by reducing margins, offering lower consumer rice prices, and increasing quality and diversity of rice. This paper discusses findings derived from unique stacked surveys of all value chain segments in seven zones, more and less developed, around Bangladesh, China, India, and Vietnam. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences. Source

Hien N.T.,Hanoi University | van Toan P.,Vietnam Academy of Agricultural science | Choudhury A.T.M.A.,University of Sydney | Rose M.T.,Monash University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition

Biofertilizer research for rice in Vietnam has focused on the isolation and selection of strains that can fix nitrogen, solubilize inorganic phosphates, stimulate plant growth, and breakdown soil organic matter. This paper assesses the consistent positive effect of BioGro on grain yield and agronomic parameters, including the rates and times for its application, the need for continued inoculation of crops grown in the same site, varietal differences, and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) combinations on the effectiveness of BioGro. The commercial biofertilizer, BioGro, consists of four strains, one formerly considered as nitrogen fixing, Pseudomonas fluorescens, a soil yeast strain, Candida tropicalis is P-solubilizing, and two other bacilli, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis, potentially breaking down cellulose, protein, and starch. All four strains contribute to plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) effect as shown by enhanced root growth. BioGro can be produced in local factories providing there is technical backup in the supply of starter culture and quality control of the final product. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Giang C.H.,Vietnam Academy of Agricultural science | Osatiashtiani A.,Aston University | dos Santos V.C.,Federal University of Parana | Lee A.F.,Aston University | And 3 more authors.

A family of tungstated zirconia solid acid catalysts were synthesised via wet impregnation and subsequent thermochemical processing for the transformation of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Acid strength increased with tungsten loading and calcination temperature, associated with stabilisation of tetragonal zirconia. High tungsten dispersions of between 2 and 7 W atoms·nm−2 were obtained in all cases, equating to sub-monolayer coverages. Glucose isomerisation and subsequent dehydration via fructose to HMF increased with W loading and calcination temperature up to 600 °C, indicating that glucose conversion to fructose was favoured over weak Lewis acid and/or base sites associated with the zirconia support, while fructose dehydration and HMF formation was favoured over Brönsted acidic WOx clusters. Aqueous phase reforming of steam exploded rice straw hydrolysate and condensate was explored heterogeneously for the first time over a 10 wt% WZ catalyst, resulting in excellent HMF yields as high as 15% under mild reaction conditions. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Dung P.N.,National Institute for Plant Protection | Cuong H.V.,Hanoi University of Agriculture | van Tuat N.,Vietnam Academy of Agricultural science | Matsumoto M.,Kyushu University
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection

Phytophthora quick wilt is a devastating disease of black peppers in Vietnam. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA of four Phytophthora samples isolated from the diseased vines in Daknong province of the central highland part of Vietnam was Polymerase chain reaction-amplified, cloned, sequenced and characterised. Database search have showed that they are most closely related to an isolate of Phytophthora tropicalis from Taiwan. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses based on the ITS region of the four Vietnamese and other GenBank isolates of P. tropicalis and a closely related species, P. capsici, provide strong evidences that the Vietnamese isolates are all different isolates of P. tropicalis. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

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