Kepplinger D.,Vienna University of Technology |
Templ M.,Vienna University of Technology |
Upadhyaya S.,Vienna International Center
Energy | Year: 2013
The paper makes a cross country analysis of the energy intensity in manufacturing sectors. Empirical data for this purpose is gathered from the databases of two international agencies namely the IEA (International Energy Agency) and the UNIDO (UN International Development Organization), which provide energy consumption and manufacturing output data respectively. The analyses are carried out with exploratory as well as formal statistical methods to identify the driving factors explaining energy intensity, identify trends and facilitate comparisons. The results from modeling the energy intensities with a linear mixed-effects model showsome driving factors that explain the energy intensities.In general, the energy intensities of industrial sectors decreased around the world. In particular, industrialized countries with higher value of GDP (gross domestic product) per capita tend to have lower energy intensity indicating that efficiency in energy use is achieved along with the technological advancement. Countries with higher GDP and smaller population tend to have lower energy intensity values and a lower energy intensity index. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Saygin D.,University Utrecht |
Gielen D.J.,International Energy Agency |
Draeck M.,Vienna International Center |
Worrell E.,University Utrecht |
And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014
Fossil fuel substitution with biomass is one of the measures to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This paper estimates the cost-effectiveness of raising industrial steam and producing materials (i.e. chemicals, polymers) from biomass. We quantify their long-term global potentials in terms of energy saving, CO2 emission reduction, cost and resource availability. Technically, biomass can replace all fossil fuels used for the production of materials and for generating low and medium temperature steam. Cost-effective opportunities exist for steam production from biomass residues and by substitution of high value petrochemicals which would together require more than 20 exajoules (EJ) of biomass worldwide in addition to baseline by 2030. Potentials could double in 2050 and reach 38-45 EJ (25% of the total industrial energy use), with most demand in Asia, other developing countries and economies in transition. The economic potential of using biomass as chemical feedstock is nearly as high as for steam production, indicating its importance. The exploitation of these potentials depends on energy prices and industry's access to biomass supply. Given the increasing competition for biomass from several economic sectors, more resource efficient materials need to be developed while steam production is already attractive due to its high effectiveness for reducing CO2 emissions per unit of biomass. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park J.,Ohio State University |
Von Frese R.R.B.,Ohio State University |
Grejner-Brzezinska D.A.,Ohio State University |
Morton Y.,Miami University Ohio |
Gaya-Pique L.R.,Vienna International Center
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2011
The total electron content (TEC) measurements of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) revealed traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) that locate North Korea's underground nuclear explosion (UNE) of 25 May 2009 to within about 3.5 km of its seismically determined epicenter. The random chance for this pattern of TIDs to register across the eleven GNSS stations is roughly 1 in 19 billion. Monte Carlo analysis of nearly 1,300 TIDs from a 7-station subset of the 11 GNSS stations supports the statistical strength of the array's signature. The UNE was also detected by seismic stations and possibly a local infrasound network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), but no radionuclide evidence was found. Thus, global GNSS infrastructure enables mapping spatial and temporal variations of TEC that augment and complement other methods of detecting and locating clandestine UNEs. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Todorov V.,Vienna International Center |
Filzmoser P.,Vienna University of Technology
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2010
The Wilks' Lambda Statistic (likelihood ratio test, LRT) is a commonly used tool for inference about the mean vectors of several multivariate normal populations. However, it is well known that the Wilks' Lambda statistic which is based on the classical normal theory estimates of generalized dispersions, is extremely sensitive to the influence of outliers. A robust multivariate statistic for the one-way MANOVA based on the Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) estimator will be presented. The classical Wilks' Lambda statistic is modified into a robust one through substituting the classical estimates by the highly robust and efficient reweighted MCD estimates. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate the performance of the test statistic under various distributions in terms of the simulated significance levels, its power functions and robustness. The power of the robust and classical statistics is compared using size-power curves, for the construction of which no knowledge about the distribution of the statistics is necessary. As a real data application the mean vectors of an ecogeochemical data set are examined. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liska I.,Vienna International Center
Handbook of Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2015
Nineteen countries share the Danube catchment area, making it the world's most international river basin. Given the number of the countries and the diversity of social, political and economic conditions, the transboundary river basin management is of supreme importance in the Danube River Basin. The Danube River Protection Convention signed in 1994 is the legal instrument for cooperation and transboundary water management, and it led into establishing the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR). In reaction to the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive and of the EU Floods Directive, the Contracting Parties of the ICPDR committed themselves to use the ICPDR as a platform for implementing these directives in the Danube River Basin District and for coping on a basin-wide level with the key pressures related to organic pollution, pollution by nutrients and hazardous substances, hydromorphological alterations, flood protection, navigation, hydropower, sediment management and groundwater management. The ICPDR established the Transnational Monitoring Network which regularly monitors water quality in the Danube River Basin as well as the Danube Accident Emergency Warning System which alerts the Danube countries in case of transboundary pollution accidents. The first Danube River Basin Management Plan was published in 2009, and it set the programme of measures with the view of reducing the pressures on the surface and groundwater. At present the first Danube Flood Risk Management Plan is under finalization focusing on flood prevention, protection and preparedness taking into account the environmental objectives of the EU Water Framework Directive. Of high importance is also the cooperation with the other sectors such as navigation and hydropower aiming at sustainable economic development while avoiding the adverse effects on the water status. Using a synergy between implementing the Convention and the current EU legislation, a significant progress has been achieved in ensuring the protection and improving water quality in the Danube River Basin. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.