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Saygin D.,University Utrecht | Gielen D.J.,International Energy Agency | Draeck M.,Vienna International Center | Worrell E.,University Utrecht | And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

Fossil fuel substitution with biomass is one of the measures to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This paper estimates the cost-effectiveness of raising industrial steam and producing materials (i.e. chemicals, polymers) from biomass. We quantify their long-term global potentials in terms of energy saving, CO2 emission reduction, cost and resource availability. Technically, biomass can replace all fossil fuels used for the production of materials and for generating low and medium temperature steam. Cost-effective opportunities exist for steam production from biomass residues and by substitution of high value petrochemicals which would together require more than 20 exajoules (EJ) of biomass worldwide in addition to baseline by 2030. Potentials could double in 2050 and reach 38-45 EJ (25% of the total industrial energy use), with most demand in Asia, other developing countries and economies in transition. The economic potential of using biomass as chemical feedstock is nearly as high as for steam production, indicating its importance. The exploitation of these potentials depends on energy prices and industry's access to biomass supply. Given the increasing competition for biomass from several economic sectors, more resource efficient materials need to be developed while steam production is already attractive due to its high effectiveness for reducing CO2 emissions per unit of biomass. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Junginger M.,University Utrecht | van Dam J.,Jinke van Dam Consultancy | Zarrilli S.,UNCTAD | Ali Mohamed F.,Vienna International Center | And 2 more authors.
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

Recently, the international trade of various bioenergy commodities has grown rapidly, yet this growth is also hampered by some barriers. The aim of this paper is to obtain an overview of what market actors currently perceive as major opportunities and barriers for the development of international bioenergy trade. The work focuses on three bioenergy commodities: bioethanol, biodiesel and wood pellets. Data were collected through an internet-based questionnaire. The majority of the 141 respondents had an industrial background. Geographically, two-thirds were from (mainly Western) Europe, with other minor contributions from all other continents. Results show that import tariffs and the implementation of sustainability certification systems are perceived as (potentially) major barriers for the trade of bioethanol and biodiesel, while logistics are seen mainly as an obstacle for wood pellets. Development of technical standards was deemed more as an opportunity than a barrier for all commodities. Most important drivers were high fossil fuel prices and climate change mitigation policies. Concluding, to overcome some of the barriers, specific actions will be required by market parties and policy makers. Import tariffs for biofuels could be reduced or abolished, linked to multinational trade agreements and harmonization (including provisions on technical standards and sustainability requirements). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Kepplinger D.,Vienna University of Technology | Templ M.,Vienna University of Technology | Upadhyaya S.,Vienna International Center
Energy | Year: 2013

The paper makes a cross country analysis of the energy intensity in manufacturing sectors. Empirical data for this purpose is gathered from the databases of two international agencies namely the IEA (International Energy Agency) and the UNIDO (UN International Development Organization), which provide energy consumption and manufacturing output data respectively. The analyses are carried out with exploratory as well as formal statistical methods to identify the driving factors explaining energy intensity, identify trends and facilitate comparisons. The results from modeling the energy intensities with a linear mixed-effects model showsome driving factors that explain the energy intensities.In general, the energy intensities of industrial sectors decreased around the world. In particular, industrialized countries with higher value of GDP (gross domestic product) per capita tend to have lower energy intensity indicating that efficiency in energy use is achieved along with the technological advancement. Countries with higher GDP and smaller population tend to have lower energy intensity values and a lower energy intensity index. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Weiss W.,Vienna International Center | Weiss W.,Federal office for Radiation Protection
Journal of Radiological Protection | Year: 2012

At its 58th session in May 2011, the United Nations Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) decided to carry out, once sufficient information was available, a full assessment of the levels of exposure and radiation risks attributable to the Fukushima accident. It envisages a preliminary document for consideration at its 59th session in May of 2012 and a more complete report for the 60th session of the Committee in 2013. This paper summarises the aims and objectives of the project, the scope, the working arrangements as well as the relation of the work to other activities. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Filzmoser P.,Vienna University of Technology | Gschwandtner M.,Vienna University of Technology | Todorov V.,Vienna International Center
Journal of Chemometrics | Year: 2012

High-dimensional data often contain many variables that are irrelevant for predicting a response or for an accurate group assignment. The inclusion of such variables in a regression or classification model leads to a loss in performance, even if the contribution of the variables to the model is small. Sparse methods for regression and classification are able to suppress these variables. This is possible by adding an appropriate penalty term to the objective function of the method. An overview of recent sparse methods for regression and classification is provided. The methods are applied to several high-dimensional data sets from chemometrics. A comparison with the non-sparse counterparts allows us to acquire an insight into their performance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Filzmoser P.,Vienna University of Technology | Todorov V.,Vienna International Center
Information Sciences | Year: 2013

Data outliers or other data inhomogeneities lead to a violation of the assumptions of traditional statistical estimators and methods. Robust statistics offers tools that can reliably work with contaminated data. Here, outlier detection methods in low and high dimension, as well as important robust estimators and methods for multivariate data are reviewed, and the most important references to the corresponding literature are provided. Algorithms are discussed, and routines in R are provided, allowing for a straightforward application of the robust methods to real data. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Todorov V.,Vienna International Center | Filzmoser P.,Vienna University of Technology
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2010

The Wilks' Lambda Statistic (likelihood ratio test, LRT) is a commonly used tool for inference about the mean vectors of several multivariate normal populations. However, it is well known that the Wilks' Lambda statistic which is based on the classical normal theory estimates of generalized dispersions, is extremely sensitive to the influence of outliers. A robust multivariate statistic for the one-way MANOVA based on the Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) estimator will be presented. The classical Wilks' Lambda statistic is modified into a robust one through substituting the classical estimates by the highly robust and efficient reweighted MCD estimates. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate the performance of the test statistic under various distributions in terms of the simulated significance levels, its power functions and robustness. The power of the robust and classical statistics is compared using size-power curves, for the construction of which no knowledge about the distribution of the statistics is necessary. As a real data application the mean vectors of an ecogeochemical data set are examined. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Park J.,Ohio State University | Von Frese R.R.B.,Ohio State University | Grejner-Brzezinska D.A.,Ohio State University | Morton Y.,Miami University Ohio | Gaya-Pique L.R.,Vienna International Center
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2011

The total electron content (TEC) measurements of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) revealed traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) that locate North Korea's underground nuclear explosion (UNE) of 25 May 2009 to within about 3.5 km of its seismically determined epicenter. The random chance for this pattern of TIDs to register across the eleven GNSS stations is roughly 1 in 19 billion. Monte Carlo analysis of nearly 1,300 TIDs from a 7-station subset of the 11 GNSS stations supports the statistical strength of the array's signature. The UNE was also detected by seismic stations and possibly a local infrasound network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), but no radionuclide evidence was found. Thus, global GNSS infrastructure enables mapping spatial and temporal variations of TEC that augment and complement other methods of detecting and locating clandestine UNEs. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.


Saygin D.,University Utrecht | Worrell E.,University Utrecht | Patel M.K.,University Utrecht | Gielen D.J.,Vienna International Center
Energy | Year: 2011

Improved energy efficiency is among the key measures for CO2 emission abatement in the industry. Energy benchmark curves provide data measured at individual plants and they offer a basis to estimate the sectoral energy efficiency improvement potentials (IP) compared to a best practice technology (BPT) currently in operation worldwide. In this paper, we estimate the BPT energy use of 17 industry sectors based on such curves or energy indicators prepared at country-level. We compare BPT data with current energy use to estimate the IP. According to our analysis, BPT offers improvement potentials of 27±8% worldwide. This is equivalent to 32.5±9.6EJ (exajoules) of final energy savings worldwide, of which three-quarters can be achieved in developing countries. Due to lack of benchmark curves and limited data availability for developing countries, our results include uncertainties. We used literature data at country-level and international energy statistics to fill data gaps and to develop energy indicators. Quality of these data should be improved and benchmark data needs to be collected for more sectors. By doing so, energy benchmarking could become a key tool to estimate energy saving potentials and energy indicators could serve as strong supplementary methodology. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Kumar D.,University of Cambridge | Haubold H.J.,Vienna International Center
Advances in Space Research | Year: 2010

The major problem in the cosmological nucleosynthesis is the evaluation of the reaction rate. The present scenario is that the standard thermonuclear function in the Maxwell-Boltzmann form is evaluated by using various techniques. The Maxwell-Boltzmannian approach to nuclear reaction rate theory is extended to cover Tsallis statistics (Tsallis, 1988) and more general cases of distribution functions. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate in some more detail the extended reaction probability integral in the equilibrium thermodynamic argument and in the cut-off case. The extended reaction probability integrals will be evaluated in closed form for all convenient values of the parameter by means of residue calculus. A comparison of the standard reaction probability integrals with the extended reaction probability integrals is also done. © 2009 COSPAR.

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