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Bundoora, Australia

Pigott E.J.,Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia | Roberts W.,Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia | Ovenden S.P.B.,Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia | Rochfort S.,Victorian AgriBioSciences Center | And 2 more authors.
Metabolomics | Year: 2012

Eight specimens of six known cultivars of Ricinus communis were investigated for differences in their metabolome that could be used to determine both provenance and cultivar. Seven replicates of three seeds per specimen were subjected to 1H NMR analysis, with the collected data further investigated using multivariate statistical analysis (OPLS-DA), resulting in class separations according to provenance. Analysis of loadings plots in addition to further chemical analysis of the extracts allowed for the identification of phenylalanine, ricinine, the N-demethyl and O-demethyl analogues of ricinine, and sucrose as important molecular markers for particular cultivars. To test the strength of the model, extracts generated from blinded specimens were used as a prediction set and were correctly classified according to provenance and cultivar. © 2011 Her Majesty the Queen in Rights of Australia. Source


Ovenden S.P.B.,Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia | Pigott E.J.,Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia | Rochfort S.,Victorian AgriBioSciences Center | Rochfort S.,La Trobe University | Bourne D.J.,Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia
Phytochemical Analysis | Year: 2014

Introduction Seeds of Ricinus communis contain the toxic protein ricin, a 64 kD heterodimeric type II ribosome-inactivating protein that has been used in several high-profile poisoning incidents. The ability to determine which cultivar the toxin was isolated from via an LC-MS method would be of significant use to law enforcement and forensic agencies. Objective To analyse via LC-MS and chemometrics (principal components analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial-least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA)) extracts of R. communis to identify compounds specific to a particular cultivar. Methods Seeds from eight specimens of six cultivars of R. communis ('carmencita', 'dehradun', 'gibsonii', 'impala', 'sanguineus' and 'zanzibariensis') were extracted using a standard methodology. These extracts were analysed by LC-MS then subjected to chemometric analysis (PCA and OPLS-DA). Identified compounds of importance were subjected to high-resolution Fourier transform (HRFT) MS and MS/MS to elucidate their structures. Results This analysis identified 17 ions as potential cultivar determinators. Through accurate mass measurement and MS/MS, molecular formulae for 13 ions were determined, including two known and 11 new peptides. Conclusion Unique ions in extracts of 'carmencita', 'dehradun', 'gibsonii', 'impala' and 'zanzibariensis' were identified that would allow an individual cultivar to be distinguished from other cultivars in this study. Although 'sanguineus' extracts contained no unique compounds, a unique LC-MS profile would allow for cultivar assignment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Zhang J.,Murdoch University | Dell B.,Murdoch University | Biddulph B.,3 Baron Hay Court | Drake-Brockman F.,3 Baron Hay Court | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2013

The utilization of dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b in wheat significantly increased grain yield and contributed to the "green revolution". However, the benefit of Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b in drought environments has been debated. Although quantitative trait loci (QTL) for kernel number per spike (KN) and thousand-grain weight (TGW) have been found to be associated with Rht-B1 and Rht-D1, the confounding effect of environmental variation has made a direct association difficult to find. In this study, we used a doubled haploid population (225 lines) of Westonia × Kauz, in which both Rht-B1b (Kauz) and Rht-D1b (Westonia) segregated. The purpose of the study was to determine the interaction of Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 with grain yield components, namely KN and TGW, and to investigate genotype-by-environment interactions in glasshouse and field trials conducted in 2010 and 2011 in Western Australia. A genetic map of 1,156 loci was constructed using 195 microsatellite markers, two gene-based markers for Rht-B1 and Rht-D1, and 959 single nucleotide polymorphisms. The major QTL for TGW and KN were strongly linked to Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 loci and the positive effects were associated with the wild-type alleles, Rht-B1a and Rht-D1a. The major QTL of TGW were on chromosome 2D and 4B. The significant genetic effects (14.6-22.9 %) of TGW indicated that marker-assisted selection for TGW is possible, and markers gwm192a (206 bp) or gwm192b (236 bp) can be used as indicators of high TGW. For KN, one major QTL was detected on chromosome 4D in the analysis across three environments. The association of the wild-type alleles Rht-B1a and Rht-D1a in drought environments is discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Aggarwal R.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Allainguillaume J.,Aberystwyth University | Bajay M.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Barthwal S.,Forest Research Institute | And 75 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2011

This article documents the addition of 229 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Acacia auriculiformis-×-Acacia mangium hybrid, Alabama argillacea, Anoplopoma fimbria, Aplochiton zebra, Brevicoryne brassicae, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Bucorvus leadbeateri, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium giganteum, Echinogammarus berilloni, Epimedium sagittatum, Fraxinus excelsior, Labeo chrysophekadion, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, Paratrechina longicornis, Phaeocystis antarctica, Pinus roxburghii and Potamilus capax. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acacia peregrinalis, Acacia crassicarpa, Bruguiera cylindrica, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium macrocephalum, Dictyostelium discoideum, Dictyostelium purpureum, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Dictyostelium rosarium, Polysphondylium pallidum, Epimedium brevicornum, Epimedium koreanum, Epimedium pubescens, Epimedium wushanese and Fraxinus angustifolia. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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