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Funk C.,Aurora University | Baumgartner Jr W.,Aurora University | Garcia B.,Aurora University | Garcia B.,Center for Genes | And 6 more authors.
BMC Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

Background:Ontological concepts are useful for many different biomedical tasks. Concepts are difficult to recognize in text due to a disconnect between what is captured in an ontology and how the concepts are expressed in text. There are many recognizers for specific ontologies, but a general approach for concept recognition is an open problem.Results:Three dictionary-based systems (MetaMap, NCBO Annotator, and ConceptMapper) are evaluated on eight biomedical ontologies in the Colorado Richly Annotated Full-Text (CRAFT) Corpus. Over 1,000 parameter combinations are examined, and best-performing parameters for each system-ontology pair are presented.Conclusions:Baselines for concept recognition by three systems on eight biomedical ontologies are established (F-measures range from 0.14-0.83). Out of the three systems we tested, ConceptMapper is generally the best-performing system; it produces the highest F-measure of seven out of eight ontologies. Default parameters are not ideal for most systems on most ontologies; by changing parameters F-measure can be increased by up to 0.4. Not only are best performing parameters presented, but suggestions for choosing the best parameters based on ontology characteristics are presented. © 2014 Funk et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Taheri S.,University of Ballarat | Mammadov M.,University of Ballarat | Mammadov M.,Victoria Research Laboratory
International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science | Year: 2013

Naive Bayes is among the simplest probabilistic classifiers. It often performs surprisingly well in many real world applications, despite the strong assumption that all features are conditionally independent given the class. In the learning process of this classifier with the known structure, class probabilities and conditional probabilities are calculated using training data, and then values of these probabilities are used to classify new observations. In this paper, we introduce three novel optimization models for the naive Bayes classifier where both class probabilities and conditional probabilities are considered as variables. The values of these variables are found by solving the corresponding optimization problems. Numerical experiments are conducted on several real world binary classification data sets, where continuous features are discretized by applying three different methods. The performances of these models are compared with the naive Bayes classifier, tree augmented naive Bayes, the SVM, C4.5 and the nearest neighbor classifier. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed models can significantly improve the performance of the naive Bayes classifier, yet at the same time maintain its simple structure. Source


Liu H.,U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information | Hunter L.,Aurora University | Keselj V.,Dalhousie University | Verspoor K.,Victoria Research Laboratory
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The biomedical text mining community has focused on developing techniques to automatically extract important relations between biological components and semantic events involving genes or proteins from literature. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for mining relations and events in the biomedical literature using approximate subgraph matching. Extraction of such knowledge is performed by searching for an approximate subgraph isomorphism between key contextual dependencies and input sentence graphs. Our approach significantly increases the chance of retrieving relations or events encoded within complex dependency contexts by introducing error tolerance into the graph matching process, while maintaining the extraction precision at a high level. When evaluated on practical tasks, it achieves a 51.12% F-score in extracting nine types of biological events on the GE task of the BioNLP-ST 2011 and an 84.22% F-score in detecting protein-residue associations. The performance is comparable to the reported systems across these tasks, and thus demonstrates the generalizability of our proposed approach. Source


Jimeno-Yepes A.J.,National Library of Medicine | Jimeno-Yepes A.J.,Victoria Research Laboratory | Plaza L.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Mork J.G.,National Library of Medicine | And 2 more authors.
BMC Bioinformatics | Year: 2013

Background: MEDLINE citations are manually indexed at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) using as reference the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) controlled vocabulary. For this task, the human indexers read the full text of the article. Due to the growth of MEDLINE, the NLM Indexing Initiative explores indexing methodologies that can support the task of the indexers. Medical Text Indexer (MTI) is a tool developed by the NLM Indexing Initiative to provide MeSH indexing recommendations to indexers. Currently, the input to MTI is MEDLINE citations, title and abstract only. Previous work has shown that using full text as input to MTI increases recall, but decreases precision sharply. We propose using summaries generated automatically from the full text for the input to MTI to use in the task of suggesting MeSH headings to indexers. Summaries distill the most salient information from the full text, which might increase the coverage of automatic indexing approaches based on MEDLINE. We hypothesize that if the results were good enough, manual indexers could possibly use automatic summaries instead of the full texts, along with the recommendations of MTI, to speed up the process while maintaining high quality of indexing results.Results: We have generated summaries of different lengths using two different summarizers, and evaluated the MTI indexing on the summaries using different algorithms: MTI, individual MTI components, and machine learning. The results are compared to those of full text articles and MEDLINE citations. Our results show that automatically generated summaries achieve similar recall but higher precision compared to full text articles. Compared to MEDLINE citations, summaries achieve higher recall but lower precision.Conclusions: Our results show that automatic summaries produce better indexing than full text articles. Summaries produce similar recall to full text but much better precision, which seems to indicate that automatic summaries can efficiently capture the most important contents within the original articles. The combination of MEDLINE citations and automatically generated summaries could improve the recommendations suggested by MTI. On the other hand, indexing performance might be dependent on the MeSH heading being indexed. Summarization techniques could thus be considered as a feature selection algorithm that might have to be tuned individually for each MeSH heading. © 2013 Jimeno-Yepes et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Sokolov A.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Funk C.,Aurora University | Graim K.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Verspoor K.,Aurora University | And 2 more authors.
BMC Bioinformatics | Year: 2013

Combining heterogeneous sources of data is essential for accurate prediction of protein function. The task is complicated by the fact that while sequence-based features can be readily compared across species, most other data are species-specific. In this paper, we present a multi-view extension to GOstruct, a structured-output framework for function annotation of proteins. The extended framework can learn from disparate data sources, with each data source provided to the framework in the form of a kernel. Our empirical results demonstrate that the multi-view framework is able to utilize all available information, yielding better performance than sequence-based models trained across species and models trained from collections of data within a given species. This version of GOstruct participated in the recent Critical Assessment of Functional Annotations (CAFA) challenge; since then we have significantly improved the natural language processing component of the method, which now provides performance that is on par with that provided by sequence information. The GOstruct framework is available for download at http://strut.sourceforge.net. © 2013 Sokolov etal.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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