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Kirkcaldy, United Kingdom

Mangesi L.,Victoria Hospital | Zakarija-Grkovic I.,University of Split
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews | Year: 2016

Background: Breast engorgement is a painful condition affecting large numbers of women in the early postpartum period. It may lead to premature weaning, cracked nipples, mastitis and breast abscess. Various forms of treatment for engorgement have been studied but so far little evidence has been found on an effective intervention. Objectives: This is an update of a systematic review first published by Snowden et al. in 2001 and subsequently published in 2010. The objective of this update is to seek new information on the best forms of treatment for breast engorgement in lactating women. Search methods: We identified studies for inclusion through the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2015) and searched reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility, extracted data and conducted 'Risk of bias' assessments. Where insufficient data were presented in trial reports, we attempted to contact study authors and obtain necessary information. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results: In total, we included 13 studies with 919 women. In 10 studies individual women were the unit of analysis and in three studies, individual breasts were the unit of analysis. Four out of 13 studies were funded by an agency with a commercial interest, two received charitable funding, and two were funded by government agencies. Trials examined interventions including non-medical treatments: cabbage leaves (three studies), acupuncture (two studies), ultrasound (one study), acupressure (one study), scraping therapy (Gua Sha) (one study), cold breast-packs and electromechanical massage (one study), and medical treatments: serrapeptase (one study), protease (one study) and subcutaneous oxytocin (one study). The studies were small and used different comparisons with only single studies contributing data to outcomes of this review. We were unable to pool results in meta-analysis and only seven studies provided outcome data that could be included in data and analysis. Non-medical No differences were observed in the one study comparing acupuncture with usual care (advice and oxytocin spray) (risk ratio (RR) 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13 to 1.92; one study; 140 women) in terms of cessation of breastfeeding. However, women in the acupuncture group were less likely to develop an abscess (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.04 to 1.01; one study; 210 women), had less severe symptoms on day five (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.99), and had a lower rate of pyrexia (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.94) than women in the usual care group. In another study with 39 women comparing cabbage leaf extract with placebo, no differences were observed in breast pain (mean difference (MD) 0.40, 95% CI -0.67 to 1.47; low-quality evidence) or breast engorgement (MD 0.20, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.58; low-quality evidence). There was no difference between ultrasound and sham treatment in analgesic requirement (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.51; one study; 45 women; low-quality evidence). A study comparing Gua-Sha therapy with hot packs and massage found a marked difference in breast engorgement (MD -2.42, 95% CI -2.98 to -1.86; one study; 54 women), breast pain (MD -2.01, 95% CI -2.60 to -1.42; one study; 54 women) and breast discomfort (MD -2.33, 95% CI -2.81 to -1.85; one study; 54 women) in favour of Gua-Sha therapy five minutes post-intervention, though both interventions significantly decreased breast temperature, engorgement, pain and discomfort at five and 30 minutes post-treatment. Results from individual trials that could not be included in data analysis suggested that there were no differences between room temperature and chilled cabbage leaves and between chilled cabbage leaves and gel packs, with all interventions producing some relief. Intermittent hot/cold packs applied for 20 minutes twice a day were found to be more effective than acupressure (P < 0.001). Acupuncture did not improve maternal satisfaction with breastfeeding. In another study, women who received breast-shaped cold packs were more likely to experience a reduction in pain intensity than women who received usual care; however, the differences between groups at baseline, and the failure to observe randomisation, make this study at high risk of bias. One study found a decrease in breast temperature (P = 0.03) following electromechanical massage and pumping in comparison to manual methods; however, the high level of attrition and alternating method of sequence generation place this study at high risk of bias. Medical Women treated with protease complex were less likely to have no improvement in pain (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.74; one study; 59 women) and swelling (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.79; one study; 59 women) on the fourth day of treatment and less likely to experience no overall change in their symptoms or worsening of symptoms (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.56). It should be noted that it is more than 40 years since the study was carried out, and we are not aware that this preparation is used in current practice. Subcutaneous oxytocin provided no relief at all in symptoms at three days (RR 3.13, 95% CI 0.68 to 14.44; one study; 45 women). Serrapeptase was found to produce some relief in breast pain, induration and swelling, when compared to placebo, with a fewer number of women experiencing slight to no improvement in overallbreast engorgement, swelling and breast pain. Overall, the risk of bias of studies in the review is high. The overall quality as assessed using the GRADE approach was found to be low due to limitations in study design and the small number of women in the included studies, with only single studies providing data for analysis. Authors' conclusions: Although some interventions such as hot/cold packs, Gua-Sha (scraping therapy), acupuncture, cabbage leaves and proteolytic enzymes may be promising for the treatment of breast engorgement during lactation, there is insufficient evidence from published trials on any intervention to justify widespread implementation. More robust research is urgently needed on the treatment of breast engorgement. © 2016 The Cochrane Collaboration.

Cundy T.,University of Auckland | MacKay J.,Victoria Hospital
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology | Year: 2011

Purpose of Review: Hypomagnesaemia has recently been recognized as a rare, but severe, complication of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use. We reviewed all the cases published to date in peer-reviewed journals to summarize what is known of the epidemiology, risk factors, cause and treatment. Recent Findings: Hypomagnesaemia has been described with all substituted pyridylmethylsulphonyl benzimidazadole derivatives and is a class effect, recurring with substitution of one PPI for another. A long duration of use and high rates of adherence are probably risk factors, but the prevalence is unknown. The diagnosis is often missed, despite the severe symptomatology. Renal magnesium handling is normal, so implicating impairment of net intestinal absorption as the proximate cause. It is not known whether this is the consequence of defective absorption of magnesium through the active or passive transport processes, or increased losses. Summary: PPI-associated hypomagnesaemia is a rare, but potentially life-threatening, side-effect that has emerged only in the era of mass use of these agents. The cause of hypomagnesaemia remains poorly understood, but it responds rapidly to withdrawal of the PPI. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Wenzel-Smith G.,Victoria Hospital
South African Journal of Surgery | Year: 2013

Bochdalek hernia (BH), a closing defect of the peripheral posterior aspect of the diaphragm, is the most common of the congenital diaphragmatic hernias and is usually diagnosed in neonates. Symptomatic presentation of a right-sided diaphragmatic hernia in an adult is unusual. Owing to their rarity and varied presentation, these hernias can pose a diagnostic challenge. A right-sided BH in a 40-year-old woman who presented with respiratory distress associated with abdominal pain and symptoms of small-bowel obstruction is reported. Midline laparotomy revealed necrotic small bowel and faecothorax of the pleural cavity. Diaphragmatic hernias should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute or chronic gastrointestinal, or less frequently respiratory, symptoms.

Steer C.,Victoria Hospital | Froelich J.,University of Heidelberg | Soutullo C.A.,University of Navarra | Johnson M.,Child Neuropsychiatry Unit | Shaw M.,Shire Pharmaceuticals
CNS Drugs | Year: 2012

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with substantial functional, clinical and economic burdens. It is among the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, and often persists into adulthood. Both medication and psychosocial interventions are recommended for the treatment of ADHD. However, ADHD treatment practices vary considerably, depending on medication availability, reimbursement and the evolution of clinical practice in each country. In Europe, stimulants and atomoxetine are widely available medications for the treatment of ADHD, whereas in the US approved treatment options also include extended-release formulations of clonidine and guanfacine. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (lisdexamfetamine) is a long-acting, prodrug formulation of dexamfetamine. It is currently licensed in the US, Canada and Brazil, and is undergoing phase III studies in Europe. We performed a PubMedMEDLINE search looking for recent (20052012) scientific papers regarding the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine. The lisdexamfetamine molecule is therapeutically inactive and is enzymatically hydrolysed, primarily in the blood, to the active dexamfetamine. This conversion is unaffected by gastrointestinal pH and variations in normal transit times. Lisdexamfetamine was developed with the goal of providing an extended duration of effect that is consistent throughout the day. Clinical trials have demonstrated robust clinical efficacy of lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of children, adolescents and adults with ADHD with dose-dependent improvements in the core symptoms of ADHD. Studies have further shown that the duration of action of lisdexamfetamine continues for 13 hours post-dosing in children and for 14 hours in adults. The tolerability profile of lisdexamfetamine is consistent with those of other stimulant medications, with decreased appetite, insomnia, abdominal pain and irritability among the more frequent treatment-emergent adverse events, most of which are mild to moderate in intensity and transient in nature. There are currently no parallel-group, head-to-head trial data comparing the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine with other medications for ADHD. However, the available data, including a large effect size and consistent plasma concentrations throughout the day, suggest that lisdexamfetamine is a useful treatment option for patients with ADHD. © 2012 Springer International Publishing AG. All rights reserved.

Nurmatov U.B.,University of Edinburgh | Rhatigan E.,Victoria Hospital | Simons F.E.R.,University of Manitoba | Sheikh A.,University of Edinburgh | Sheikh A.,Harvard University
Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology | Year: 2014

Background Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic or hypersensitivity reaction, which is rapid in onset and sometimes can prove fatal. Although H 2-antihistamines are often administered for emergency treatment in anaphylaxis, there is uncertainty about their effectiveness in this disease. Objective To assess the benefits and harms of H2-antihistamines in the treatment of anaphylaxis. Methods A systematic review was performed of randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing H2-antihistamines with placebo or no intervention in patients with anaphylaxis. Results The authors failed to identify any eligible studies for inclusion in this systematic review. Conclusion When H2- antihistamines are recommended for anaphylaxis treatment, the status of the evidence base supporting their use should be described. Well-designed randomized controlled trials investigating the role of H2-antihistamines in anaphylaxis treatment are urgently needed. © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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