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Law D.W.,Heriot - Watt University | Tang D.,VicRoads | Molyneaux T.K.C.,RMIT University | Gravina R.,RMIT University
Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions | Year: 2011

This paper reports the results of a research project comparing the effect of surface crack width and degree of corrosion on the bond strength of confined and unconfined deformed 12 and 16 mm mild steel reinforcing bars. The corrosion was induced by chloride contamination of the concrete and an applied DC current. The principal parameters investigated were confinement of the reinforcement, the cover depth, bar diameter, degree of corrosion and the surface crack width. The results indicated that potential relationship between the crack width and the bond strength. The results also showed an increase in bond strength at the point where initial surface cracking was observed for bars with confining stirrups. No such increase was observed with unconfined specimens. © RILEM 2010. Source

Legare E.I.,VicRoads
Road and Transport Research | Year: 2010

To achieve the economic and sustainability benefits of transport performance that come with providing people with multiple transport choices, walking and cycling must be recognised and supported as viable and legitimate modes of transport. Policy is a critical tool to achieve this goal and good policy requires a sound evidence base. The paper describes one of several research projects conducted in 2007 by the Department of Transport in order to help inform policy that could support these outcomes. The research consisted of interviews with local government officers to obtain data on community walking and cycling needs from a local government perspective. The paper discusses the findings, which are categorised under 6 themes: 1) the state of walking and cycling networks across Victoria; 2) reasons for walking and cycling trips; 3) barriers to walking and cycling; 4) the need to integrate walking and cycling with public transport; 5) council interventions to increase walking and cycling; and 6) remaining challenges for Local and State Government. The paper describes how these findings informed the Victorian Cycling Strategy, released in March 2009. The objective of the Strategy is to support the recognition of cycling as a legitimate and viable transport choice and to increase cycling in the State. Source

Horrey W.J.,Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety | Lesch M.F.,Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety | Mitsopoulos-Rubens E.,VicRoads | Lee J.D.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2015

Humans often make inflated or erroneous estimates of their own ability or performance. Such errors in calibration can be due to incomplete processing, neglect of available information or due to improper weighing or integration of the information and can impact our decision-making, risk tolerance, and behaviors. In the driving context, these outcomes can have important implications for safety. The current paper discusses the notion of calibration in the context of self-appraisals and self-competence as well as in models of self-regulation in driving. We further develop a conceptual framework for calibration in the driving context borrowing from earlier models of momentary demand regulation, information processing, and lens models for information selection and utilization. Finally, using the model we describe the implications for calibration (or, more specifically, errors in calibration) for our understanding of driver distraction, in-vehicle automation and autonomous vehicles, and the training of novice and inexperienced drivers. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Younus Ali M.M.,Swinburne University of Technology | Newman G.,VicRoads | Arulrajah A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Disfani M.M.,Swinburne University of Technology
Australian Geomechanics Journal | Year: 2011

Recycled glass is a mixture of different coloured glass particles with debris. It is the result of crushing the waste glass collected from residential and industrial areas. Construction and Demolition (C&D) materials such as concrete, excavation stone (basalt) and brick make up a significant proportion of the waste materials present in landfills in Australia. Substituting the quarry produced crushed rock with recycled materials in road pavement subbase applications would significantly reduce the demand for landfill sites and would potentially provide an opportunity to use recycled material as aggregates in parts of the state where aggregates sources are becoming scarce. This paper discusses the suitability of using blends of recycled glass and crushed rock as road pavement subbase materials with mixtures of 10% to 50% by mass of recycled glass. The experimental works undertaken in this study includes basic classification tests along with modified compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and Los Angeles Abrasion tests to assess the suitability of the blends. The research indicates that initially up to 15% "recycled glass with the maximum particle size of 4.75 mm" could be safely added to Class 3 crushed rock. The degree of breakdown occurring in the recycled glass blend is on the limit of what would be acceptable for this material. Depending on the results of future field trials, it may be possible to increase the percentage of recycled glass. Source

Denman E.C.,VicRoads | May P.B.,University of Melbourne | Moore G.M.,University of Melbourne
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2016

Biofiltration systems can be used to improve the quality of stormwater by treating runoff using plants grown in a moderately permeable soil. Most biofilters use herbaceous species, but in highly urbanized locations, such as streets, trees may be a more suitable vegetation. Biofilters that use urban woody vegetation are less studied. This experiment investigated the use of four street tree species [Eucalyptus polyanthemos Schauer, Lophostemon confertus (R. Br.) Peter G. Wilson & J.T. Waterh., Callistemon salignus (Sm.) Colvill ex Sweet, and Platanus orientalis L.] and an unplanted control in model biofilters. All four tree species are used in urban landscapes in southern Australia and were chosen to investigate potential species differences in biofiltration systems. The trees were grown in mesocosms as a randomized block factorial design in soils with three saturated hydraulic conductivity rates (4, 95, and 170 mm h-1). The trees were regularly flooded with mains water (tap water) or artificial stormwater. Tree growth and nutrient removal performance of the systems were investigated over 13 mo. All four species grew well in all three soils, including one chosen for its low, and potentially growth-limiting, drainage rate. Tree growth increased significantly, except for E. polyanthemos, when flooded with stormwater. Unplanted controls were a source of nutrients; however, the presence of trees reduced oxidized nitrogen and filterable reactive phosphorus concentrations in leachate. There was little effect of species on the removal of nutrients from stormwater. Trees have the potential to be effective elements in urban biofiltration systems, but further field-level evaluation of these systems is required to fully assess this potential. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA. Source

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