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Buret M.,VicRoads | McIntosh J.,VicRoads
2nd Australasian Acoustical Societies Conference, ACOUSTICS 2016 | Year: 2016

In 2015, VicRoads commenced a programme to monitor the environmental performance of Melbourne's road network. Three freeways and three arterial roads were selected across metropolitan Melbourne for the installation of noise and air quality monitors. The locations were chosen for their representation of major roads in Melbourne, the availability of actual traffic data and the lack of interference from other sources of pollution. Hourly noise levels are collected continuously and NO2 emissions are measured by means of diffusion tubes. The monitoring programme is detailed here and results with preliminary findings from the first months of noise monitoring are introduced.

Downey L.A.,Swinburne University of Technology | King R.,Swinburne University of Technology | Papafotiou K.,Swinburne University of Technology | Swann P.,VicRoads | And 3 more authors.
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2012

Rationale: Cannabis and alcohol are the most popular drugs amongst recreational users and most prevalent in injured and deceased drivers. The Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST) are commonly used to establish impairment due to drugs and alcohol, but limited empirical evidence exists concerning the combined effects of these drugs on SFST performance. Methods: The sample comprised 80 individuals (31 females; 49 males). Age ranged between 21 and 35 years (M = 26.5, SD = 5). Forty participants (15 females; 25 males) took part in the low alcohol condition (BAC, <0.05 %), and 40 participants (16 females; 24 males), took part in the high alcohol condition (BAC, >0.05 %). For each part of the study, two levels of â̂†9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were administered (1.8 and 3 % THC) or a matching placebo cigarette (0 % THC) in combination with alcohol. Performance on the SFST was assessed 30 min post-dosing. Results: A number of significant differences in SFST performance were identified with 28 % of the sample failing the test (when the head movement and jerks sign was included) when low alcohol and low THC were administered together. When a higher dose of alcohol was administered with a low dose of THC, 38 % of the sample failed the test, and 35 % also failed when the high dose of alcohol was combined with a higher dose of THC. Conclusions: The current results highlight the limited ability of the SFST to identify drug consumption in the absence of any evidence of driving impairment or physiological indicators. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Parrott A.C.,Swinburne University of Technology | Parrott A.C.,University of Swansea | Gibbs A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Scholey A.B.,Swinburne University of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2011

Rationale This study investigated the acute mood effects of oral MDMA, methamphetamine, and placebo in a double-blind laboratory study. Methods Fifty-two healthy participants comprised abstinent recreational users of stimulant drugs, 27 female and 25 male, mean age 24.8 years. Three test sessions involved acute 100 mg oral 3.4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 0.42 mg/kg oral methamphetamine, and matching placebo. Drug administration was counterbalanced, testing was double-blind, and medical supervision was present throughout. Car-driving performance on a laboratory simulator was assessed after 3 and 24 h, with the findings being presented elsewhere. Positive and negative moods (PANAS self-ratings) were completed before drug administration, 3, 4.5, and 24 h later. Blood samples were taken to monitor drug plasma levels. Results Following MDMA, there were no significant increases in positive moods, whereas negative moods were significantly higher than under placebo. Methamphetamine led to significant increases in both positive and negative moods. The MDMA findings contrast with the elated moods, typically noted by dance clubbers on Ecstasy. However, they are consistent with some previous laboratory findings, since a wide array of positive and negative mood changes have been demonstrated. One possible explanatory factor was the neutral environmental situation, particularly if a primary action of MDMA is to intensify ongoing psychological states. Other explanatory factors, such as dosage, gender, post-drug timing, neurohormonal aspects, and social factors, are also discussed. Conclusions In the laboratory, acute methamphetamine led to significantly higher positive moods. However, against expectations, MDMA did not generate a significant increase in positive moods. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Hassan R.,Swinburne University of Technology | Lin O.,VicRoads | Thananjeyan A.,VicRoads
International Journal of Pavement Engineering | Year: 2015

Reported in this paper are the process and outcomes of deterioration modelling for five types of pavement bituminous surfacing for use in identifying and prioritising resurfacing needs. Surface condition data is collected using subjective assessment surveys and the condition ratings of distresses are combined into a single measure referred to as surface inspection rating (SIR). Deterioration models of SIR as a function of surface age are developed for the five networks using three modelling approaches. They include regression analysis, logistic regression analysis and Markov chains. A comparison between the output models of the three approaches is presented and assessed in terms of predictions reasonableness and accuracy considering their closeness to actual data and practical local experience and engineering judgement. Overall the findings indicate that the three modelling approaches provide similar predictions and deterioration rates for most surfacing types. A comparison of performance between the five networks is also presented. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

Hassan R.,Swinburne University of Technology | Lin O.,VicRoads | Thananjeyan A.,VicRoads
International Journal of Pavement Engineering | Year: 2015

Deterioration models for pavement surface distresses have been developed using probabilistic modelling approaches. The condition data is collected using visual inspection surveys. Distress data used in the modelling include cracking, texture loss and stone loss of different pavement surfacing types. The latter includes dense graded asphalt, open graded asphalt, ultra-thin asphalt, sprayed/chip seal and geotextile seal (chip seal with geotextile underlay). Probabilistic modelling approaches used include logistic regression and Markov chains (MC). The two variables used in the modelling are distress rating and surface age. These models are to be used for network level management. For the network modelled herein, logistic models are found to provide predictions that are comparable with actual average condition data at different age values. It is also observed that predictions of most MC models are higher than predictions of logistic models and actual average data. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

Law D.W.,Heriot - Watt University | Tang D.,VicRoads | Molyneaux T.K.C.,RMIT University | Gravina R.,RMIT University
Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions | Year: 2011

This paper reports the results of a research project comparing the effect of surface crack width and degree of corrosion on the bond strength of confined and unconfined deformed 12 and 16 mm mild steel reinforcing bars. The corrosion was induced by chloride contamination of the concrete and an applied DC current. The principal parameters investigated were confinement of the reinforcement, the cover depth, bar diameter, degree of corrosion and the surface crack width. The results indicated that potential relationship between the crack width and the bond strength. The results also showed an increase in bond strength at the point where initial surface cracking was observed for bars with confining stirrups. No such increase was observed with unconfined specimens. © RILEM 2010.

Tang D.,VicRoads | Molyneaux T.K.C.,RMIT University | Law D.W.,Heriot - Watt University | Gravina R.,RMIT University
ACI Materials Journal | Year: 2011

This paper reports the results of an experimental program to investigate the changes in the bond characteristics of deformed mild steel reinforcing due to chloride-induced corrosion. The principal parameters investigated are the cover depth, bar diameter, degree of corrosion, and the surface crack width. The results show a strong relationship between the average surface crack width and the average bond strength; the degree of corrosion does not demonstrate such a clear relationship. The bars with a 1 C/φ (cover/diameter) show an initial increase in bond strength at the first visible crack; no similar initial increase is observed for the bars with 3 C/φ The bottom-cast bars display a higher bond strength with no corrosion, but a similar bond strength is observed for both top- and bottom-cast bars once cracking is observed. Copyright © 2011, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved.

Powers N.,VicRoads | Hinkeesing S.,VicRoads
Bridge Maintenance, Safety, Management and Life Extension - Proceedings of the 7th International Conference of Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management, IABMAS 2014 | Year: 2014

This paper presents the process and outcomes to date of an initiative of VicRoads, the State Road Authority of Victoria, Australia, to undertake deterioration modeling of its bridges and major culverts. The model was investigated in 2012 -2013 from a practical method of using condition inspection data.As is the current trend generally being experienced worldwide, the availability of funds for the management and maintenance of bridges and culverts in Victoria, Australia is limited. This places greater pressure on asset managers to justify the level of funding required and to quantify the risk, life cycle cost and other impacts of a reduced funding base. In response to this challenge, VicRoads has undertaken an initiative to create deterioration models of its network of approximately 6,000 bridges and major culverts.VicRoads is attempting to use condition inspection data and engineering judgment to develop a deterioration model for its bridges and major culverts. Data from regular Level 2 - Condition Inspections is being interrogated and used to determine trends in the deterioration of key structural elements (eg. beams, abutments and piers) of the various types of bridges and major culverts within Victoria. Where needed, engineering judgment has been used to supplement the model by confirming the deterioration trends, developing them where sufficient data was not available and projecting trends into the future.By focusing on the condition of key structural elements VicRoads will be better positioned to prioritise funds and assess the risk of a reduced funding base. The deterioration model outputs provides asset managers with trends relating to the structural capacity and performance of the bridges and major culverts they manage which enables them to focus on priorities while being able to quantify risk and level of service. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group.

Legare E.I.,VicRoads
Road and Transport Research | Year: 2010

To achieve the economic and sustainability benefits of transport performance that come with providing people with multiple transport choices, walking and cycling must be recognised and supported as viable and legitimate modes of transport. Policy is a critical tool to achieve this goal and good policy requires a sound evidence base. The paper describes one of several research projects conducted in 2007 by the Department of Transport in order to help inform policy that could support these outcomes. The research consisted of interviews with local government officers to obtain data on community walking and cycling needs from a local government perspective. The paper discusses the findings, which are categorised under 6 themes: 1) the state of walking and cycling networks across Victoria; 2) reasons for walking and cycling trips; 3) barriers to walking and cycling; 4) the need to integrate walking and cycling with public transport; 5) council interventions to increase walking and cycling; and 6) remaining challenges for Local and State Government. The paper describes how these findings informed the Victorian Cycling Strategy, released in March 2009. The objective of the Strategy is to support the recognition of cycling as a legitimate and viable transport choice and to increase cycling in the State.

Denman E.C.,VicRoads | May P.B.,University of Melbourne | Moore G.M.,University of Melbourne
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2016

Biofiltration systems can be used to improve the quality of stormwater by treating runoff using plants grown in a moderately permeable soil. Most biofilters use herbaceous species, but in highly urbanized locations, such as streets, trees may be a more suitable vegetation. Biofilters that use urban woody vegetation are less studied. This experiment investigated the use of four street tree species [Eucalyptus polyanthemos Schauer, Lophostemon confertus (R. Br.) Peter G. Wilson & J.T. Waterh., Callistemon salignus (Sm.) Colvill ex Sweet, and Platanus orientalis L.] and an unplanted control in model biofilters. All four tree species are used in urban landscapes in southern Australia and were chosen to investigate potential species differences in biofiltration systems. The trees were grown in mesocosms as a randomized block factorial design in soils with three saturated hydraulic conductivity rates (4, 95, and 170 mm h-1). The trees were regularly flooded with mains water (tap water) or artificial stormwater. Tree growth and nutrient removal performance of the systems were investigated over 13 mo. All four species grew well in all three soils, including one chosen for its low, and potentially growth-limiting, drainage rate. Tree growth increased significantly, except for E. polyanthemos, when flooded with stormwater. Unplanted controls were a source of nutrients; however, the presence of trees reduced oxidized nitrogen and filterable reactive phosphorus concentrations in leachate. There was little effect of species on the removal of nutrients from stormwater. Trees have the potential to be effective elements in urban biofiltration systems, but further field-level evaluation of these systems is required to fully assess this potential. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA.

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