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Fachri A.Z.,VICO Indonesia | Aryanto B.,VICO Indonesia | Wasis N.,VICO Indonesia | Marbun R.H.,VICO Indonesia
35th Annual Indonesian Petroleum Association Convention [IPA] (Jakarta, Indonesia, 5/18-20/2011) Proceedings | Year: 2011

The East Kalimantan Pipeline Network plays an important role in delivering hydrocarbons from upstream fields to LNG plant and domestic commercial sites, manufacturing fertilizers and chemicals. The transmission consists of trunklines and pipelines for more than 1,000 km with diameter size of 6-42 in. and operating pressure up to 1,000 psig in East Kalimantan. Area coverage stretches along 120 km from Handil (southern area) until Bontang (northern area) through onshore and river crossings. The continuity and the safety of this hydrocarbon delivery are very important and critical, considering the high pressure hydrocarbons pipeline and causing high risks of danger. Instead of internal and external corrosion problem, one study showed that the main factor causing damage of the pipes is due to nontechnical aspect or socio-human activity along the pipeline, including construction and population activities. Many efforts have been performed by the operator to establish the pipeline network sustainability. It covers many activities, such as ROW integrity program, road crossing guideline development and agreements for industry, legal compliance, and other related CSR program. The crossing guideline of oil and gas pipeline in East Kalimantan itself was the first ever developed and published in Indonesia. These continuous and still ongoing efforts are considerably successful in supporting of more than 35 years uninterruptible operations of East Kalimantan Pipeline Network.


Wijanarko A.,VICO Indonesia | Ismanto B.,VICO Indonesia | Permana R.,VICO Indonesia | Pizzolante I.,ENI S.p.A
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition 2012, APOGCE 2012 | Year: 2012

VICO Indonesia is the operator of the Sanga-Sanga Production Sharing Contract located onshore of the Mahakam delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia since 1968. Over 40 years the PSC has produced 70% of the estimated original gas in place, supporting Bontang LNG plant. VICO has 7 producing fields, in a complex fluvial deltaic deposition with more than 2700 gas and oil reservoir, mixed of depletion and water drive mechanism reservoir. VICO production peaked at 1.5 BSCFD in 1995 then start to decline. Current production is in the range 385 MMSCFD of gas and 14500 BOPD of liquids from 400 active wells. In a situation of 46% annual base decline, to fulfill domestic and LNG contractual commitments and to optimize reserve recovery, VICO generated and implemented an integrated and aggressive work program called "Renewal Plan". This is an integrated approach between reservoir management and technology application; it provides a detail road map to onward development strategy. The main elements of the plan are extensive development drilling activities (conventional drilling, grid base drilling, cluster well drilling), low permeability reservoir optimization (horizontal well, hydraulic fracturing, radial drilling), production optimization (deliquification technique, permanent coil tubing gas lift for monobore type) and facilities optimization (reducing abandonment pressure by additional compression installation, wellhead compressor, debottlenecking). Technology application in drilling, completions, production and facilities optimization combine with synergy from multidisciplinary team have resulted in maintaining VICO production decline in the range of 5% (vs 46% base decline), allowing promoting and partially replacing the reserves at an attractive development cost, even after 40 years production life. This paper will describe the successful implementation of renewal plan in VICO Indonesia, which proved to be an efficient example of better reservoir management for optimum development of mature assets. Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Jauhari U.,VICO Indonesia | Widiastuti B.,VICO Indonesia | Wijanarko A.,VICO Indonesia | Permana R.C.,VICO Indonesia
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition 2012, APOGCE 2012 | Year: 2012

The Semberah field is located onshore on the Mahakam delta, East-Kalimantan, Indonesia. It is operated by VICO Indonesia. Reservoirs in this field consist of multi-layered sandstones deposited in a complex fluvio-deltaic environment. After more than 30 years of production, this field has reached a mature stage. Most of the remaining reserves are locked in low permeability reservoirs, on which conventional techniques have not been very effective in depleting the reserves. These low-permeability reservoirs require technology innovations to economically produce the reserves. A comprehensive approach was taken by a multidisciplinary team of geologists, reservoir engineers, drilling and completion engineers to assess options for technology application and identify candidate reservoirs for low-perm zone development. Several technologies were considered including horizontal wells, radial jetting, and hydraulic fracturing. Of the technologies applied, horizontal well was proven as the most effective technique to increase productivity of these low-perm reservoirs. One horizontal well was successfully executed and intersected 867 ft of lateral section into the target reservoir. The well was put on production giving exceptional results. For comparison, the well increased the gas production rate of the target reservoir from 1 MMSCFD using conventional techniques to 15 MMSCFD using horizontal drilling. Currently, the horizontal well is still producing. Cumulative production has reached in excess of 7 BCF after a period of 6 years. Other technologies, such as radial jetting and hydraulic fracturing, were also applied but they recover moderate-size gas reserves with less successful results. Lessons-learned were captured and several elements of improvement were identified for future application. This paper illustrates the lessons learned in searching for the fit-for-purpose technology application to unlock gas reserves in low-permeability reservoirs in a geologically complex environment such as the Semberah field. Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Priambudi A.,VICO Indonesia | Baraba R.N.,VICO Indonesia | Tranggono N.W.,VICO Indonesia | Aryanto B.,VICO Indonesia
Society of Petroleum Engineers - International Petroleum Technology Conference 2012, IPTC 2012 | Year: 2012

The Badak Export Manifold (BEM) is a complex manifold to gather the entire gas delivery from upstream fields and to deliver hydrocarbons to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant and to domestic commercial sites, manufacturing fertilizers and chemicals. Besides the function as gas processing facilities, the duties of the export manifold are to maintain pressure, distribute gas flow, implement off take logic during shut down and coordinate gas delivery. The BEM is the beginning of four main pipelines work in parallel configuration to allow flexibility of the gas delivery and to maintain gas composition within acceptable specification. The pressure stability and gas specification are the important aspect of the export manifold operations. These operations become challenging tasks because of the changing of the upstream fields' condition. The pressure was decreased and the gas composition became richer, not to mention gas supply was less than gas demand as well as pipelines capacity. A quick decision and field action should be taken immediately to avoid plant shut down and gas composition out of consumers' specification. In addition to gas composition become richer, hilly terrains of the pipelines create liquid hold up (LHU) in the pipelines. The LHU will increase the back pressure to upstream field, and as consequences the plant with natural gas flow from well will be restricted. Despite the flexibility of the supply, the parallel operations of the pipelines make gas flow tend to go to the line which has less back pressure. The BEM takes an important part in the attempt to sweep liquid in the parallel mode by segregating gas flow into particular pipeline. Many efforts have been performed to improve export manifold operations. It was included establishing a clear operation guideline during normal and emergency situations, adjusting operations parameter to minimize unnecessary shut down, and installing additional equipment to allow remote operations of safety equipments within export manifold area. Nowadays, almost all of the BEM parameters can be monitored remotely to support better operation. Copyright 2011, International Petroleum Technology Conference.


Corbellini J.B.,VICO Indonesia | Adi R.,VICO Indonesia | Sutha I.M.,VICO Indonesia | Gultom L.,VICO Indonesia | And 3 more authors.
Society of Petroleum Engineers - International Petroleum Technology Conference 2012, IPTC 2012 | Year: 2012

Nilam Field is located in Kutai Basin, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, which even more than 40 years of exploitation, these fluvial deltaic reservoirs, of age Early-Middle Miocene, still have significant reserves of gas, that occur in poor quality reservoir rocks in structural, stratigraphic or combination traps, that were not entirely examined. This case history describes some works carried out in this field over these low permeability reservoirs, locally known as G's sandstones, in order to understand the root of the erratic production results, evaluate the formation damage, identify the potential areas and present the right solution for recovering the undeveloped accumulations. Seventeen cores were taken in these horizons, with the main purpose to obtain the necessary information for determination and characterization of rocks and the explanation of trapped phase. An understanding of multiphase properties as capillary pressure, water-gas relative permeability, fluid compatibility and the right model for effective permeability, calibrated by nodal analysis techniques, are mandatory to properly define the input for the 3D petrophysical models. In the past, the failure to fully understand these concepts, especially the effective permeability model and its relationship with the critical water saturation, less than 40% for these reservoirs, has led to a not clear understanding the controls on gas-field distribution. Therefore, effective permeability to gas as function of varying water saturation is the key factor to understand the reservoir productivity. The integration of critical petrophysical aspects with geology using geostatistical methods had produced comprehensive overlay models that were used to delineate the best areas for developing the significant amounts of un-recovered reserves with minimum uncertainty in production. The use of this methodology has arrived not only to achieve this target but also has shown an incremental gas production as much as 10 times, in some areas of the field, during the last 2 years. For this study, two sources of information were available: Core data and Log data. Both were analyzed to get reliable information to characterize the G Reservoirs. Copyright 2011, International Petroleum Technology Conference.


Sumaryanto,VICO Indonesia | Lukman A.,VICO Indonesia | Kontha I.N.H.,VICO Indonesia | Turnbull B.,VICO Indonesia
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition 2010, APOGCE 2010 | Year: 2010

VICO Indonesia is an Oil and Gas company which has operated the Sanga-Sanga Production Sharing Contract (PSC) in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, since 1968. More than 750 development wells have been drilled to date in the harsh swampy environment of the Mahakam Delta in East Kalimantan. Today, the mature reservoirs are predominantly gas, extremely depleted, and have an average recovery factor of 70%. The flowing tubing head pressure (FTHP) for wells in these developments are typically 50 to 60 psi, allowing for a potential reservoir abandonment pressure of approximately 300 psi. The reservoirs are depletion drive gas reservoirs. Through the installation of wellhead compression, further lowering the FTHP, a lower abandonment pressure was obtained and consequently reserves recovery increased through well life extension. In 2008, VICO installed 19 wellhead compressors, achieving FTHP's as low as 5 psi. This resulted in increased productivity, individual well production stability and an expected improvement in overall recovery volumes from the reservoirs. The compressors installed have a small footprint (3.4 x 8.5 m), low fuel consumption and minimal operating costs. Each unit has a nominal capacity of 1 MMscfd. Through the careful well selection process and the ability to quickly relocate the compressors to different wells has enabled Vico to maximize the benefit of this technology. The paper will present the benefits of wellhead compression in mature gas fields, the selection process for the wells and the compressors, and the operational challenges faced by the project. Copyright 2010, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Kramadibrata A.T.,VICO Indonesia | Sumaryanto,VICO Indonesia | Panjaitan P.,VICO Indonesia
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition 2011 | Year: 2011

VICO Indonesia has operated the Sanga-Sanga PSC in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, since 1968. More than 750 development wells have been drilled to date in the complex Mahakam Delta in East Kalimantan. The mature reservoirs are predominantly gas, extremely depleted and have an average recovery factor of about 70%. To optimize the development cost VICO changed the completion from multi string and multi packers to monobore in 1997 and furthermore to dual monobore in 2005. VICO has also focus to optimize oil production and recovery. The current oil recovery factor is relatively modest and needing further detail study and optimization. A multi-disciplinary team was performed to further evaluate oil potential in all VICO fields including review of historical performance, geology and development opportunities. These reservoirs were also evaluated using material balance to understand the initial volumes in place, the drive mechanism and the opportunity to maximize production and oil recovery through the existing wells. One of the challenges in maximizing oil recovery is artificial lift system in monobore completion. VICO has evaluated and selected gas lift as optimum artificial lift method. There are two possibilities to gas lift oil wells (1) using a side pocket mandrel in the conventional dual string completion and (2) inject gas lift through coil tubing in the monobore completion. The paper describes innovative gas lift system in monobore completion where gas lift mandrels were not pre-installed. This technique has been implemented, by running 1.5″ coil tubing into a well through a special tubing hanger attached to the top of the Christmas tree. This technique allows gas lift to an oil reservoir in monobore well completion without requiring rig for recompletion. This application is known as "Permanent Coil Tubing Gas Lift" or PCTGL. This technique has been implemented in "MUT-X" well that was not capable to flow naturally, and then PCTGL was installed to resume oil production. The well was flowing 600 BOPD initially and now is continue flowing at 350 BOPD. In summary, PCTGL is a proven favorable and simple method for artificial lift application in monobore completion to maximize oil production and recovery. Furthermore, this technique has helped VICO in synergizing gas and oil development to maximize value of the assets. Copyright 2011, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Jauhari U.,Slamet ST | Anggraini D.A.,VICO Indonesia | Sinaga I.B.,VICO Indonesia | Widiastuti B.,VICO Indonesia
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition 2011 | Year: 2011

The Semberah field is one of the main oil and gas producing areas operated by VICO Indonesia in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Production from this field has been focused mostly from shallow-level reservoir (C-I intervals). After production of more than 30 years, the shallow and high-permeability intervals are currently highly depleted. Meanwhile, deep and low-permeability reservoirs (J level) have rarely been penetrated leaving significant reserves. Accessing these reserves is a highly challenging work today. A recent well was drilled to access the reserves in a J sand but the drilling had to be stopped earlier due to total loss of circulation whilst penetrating a shallow high-permeability and highly depleted sandstone I082A. An integrated pore pressure prediction approach has been carried out during the planning of drilling and completion of a proposed S86 well. The objective was to successfully access deep target reserves in the J sandstone by safely drilling through the highly-depleted I082A sandstone. The approach integrated available data including well logs, cores, formation pressure, historical-match derived pressures, and drilling parameters. Pore pressure prediction showed that the proposed S86 well would penetrate normal pressure regime (8.45 ppg) to -8,500' SS. Within this interval, variously depleted reservoirs (3-6 ppg) would be penetrated. Starting from -8,500' SS to -10,680' (TD), the well was predicted to enter overpressure environment (8.45-13 ppg). Within the environment, a higly depleted I082A with 500 psi (0.87 ppg) was estimated to be encountered at -8,819' SS. The pore pressure prediction study recommended 1) to drill with normal mudweight of 10-12 ppg and set 9-5/8'' casing point before penetrating I082A sandstone, 2) to drill through I082A to its bottom with low mudweight (8-9 ppg) and isolate with 7'' short liner, 3) drill 6'' open-hole to TD with high mudweight (12-13 ppg). The newly proposed well safely drilled through the highly depleted I082A sandstone and access to the reserves in the targeted J sandstone was successfully achieved. This great success has opened up an opportunity for further development drilling in the Semberah field. Copyright 2011, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Aprilian S.,Pertamina | Adisoemarta P.S.,Chevron | Ismanto B.,Vico Indonesia
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition 2011 | Year: 2011

The three pillars of main activity on oil and gas sectors are the ABG (Academy (university), Business entity (company), and the Government). A synergism of these three pillars should be strengthening in building a sustainable growth of oil and gas business. The relationship could be in any activities amongst them, such as the universities are supporting the intake of workforces and well trained developing people for the industry (company). The companies accept the graduated students and give a sponsorship for the research in the university. The government produces the rules for business and support funds for the university. As a professional organization IATMI (Society of Indonesia Petroleum Engineers) tried to stimulate a better relationship among the A-B-G. IATMI had continuous linked activities between the universities and the companies which is a bridging program for graduate students to have information of job fair, scholarship, or research grants. The IATMI also support the company to have a better access for new research and technology development in the universities, socialization of new regulations and policies from the government, etc. This paper reviews the role of IATMI as an experienced professional organization in Indonesia's oil gas sectors. The discussion will focus on how important of a synergism among the ABG and the results of the IATMI initiatives in last decade supporting and stimulating the business of oil and gas in Indonesia. Copyright 2011, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Trusmiyadi Y.,VICO Indonesia | Kurniawan F.,VICO Indonesia | Fitria R.,VICO Indonesia | Elias E.,VICO Indonesia | Muhyinsyah A.,Bandung Institute of Technology
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition 2011 | Year: 2011

Produced water is the largest byproduct generated by the oil and gas industry. Water injection, considered as the best answer for produced water disposal, is not always possible due to reservoir constraints. The secondary produced water treatment facility in Mutiara Central Plant, VICO Indonesia, is a phenol treatment plant (PTP). It is processing approximately 8000 BPD produced-water before being released to the Dondang River. A biologically activated sludge process is applied to reduce the pollutant content so the disposed water complies with onshore waste water disposal regulation for oil and gas production industry on Permen LH 04/2007. The process reduces chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia, phenol, sulfide, and oil and grease content in the produced water. Frequently since 2008, high COD and ammonia content above the regulated thresholds (200 mg/L for COD and 5 mg/L for ammonia) in disposed produced water has been observed. A field investigation was conducted to collect integrated data of recent process parameters. The field data were then compared to design conditions, industrial practices, and literature to a determine root cause tree. In addition, a feed batch activated sludge pilot was constructed and study on inlet COD source was performed for comprehensive study. The field investigation revealed that root causes limiting the phenol treatment performance were higher oil content and COD in the inlet stream, highly fluctuating inlet debit, lack of oxygen supply, and inadequately designed and maintained clarifier and return sludge system. Following minor mitigation actions in January 2010 such as chemical process optimization, adjusting nutrient doses, adding sugar, fresh microbes, and routine maintenance, the effluent quality data has improved to just bellow the threshold. Six major improvements were proposed to improve PTP performance and effluent quality; e.g. repair pre-heater, construct new secondary clarifier, replace existing return sludge pump with proper capacity, install three more aerators, utilize K1 as equalization pond, and repair existing drying bed. VICO Indonesia has committed to commissioning the first four recommendations by the end of 2011. Copyright 2011, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

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