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Lippmann J.,A+ Network | Lippmann J.,Deakin University | Lawrence C.,Statewide Forensic Medical Services | Fock A.,The Alfred Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine | Year: 2015

Introduction: An individual case review was conducted of known diving-related deaths that occurred in Australia in 2010. Method: The case studies were compiled using statements from witnesses and reports of the police and coroners. In each case, the particular circumstances of the accident and details from the post-mortem examination, where available, are provided. A root cause analysis was made for each case. Results: There were 20 reported fatalities, one less than the previous year. Five of the victims were female (four scuba divers) and 15 were males. Twelve deaths occurred while snorkelling and/or breath-hold diving, seven while scuba diving (one of whom was using a rebreather), and one diver died while using surface supplied breathing apparatus. At least two breath-hold divers likely drowned as a result of apnoeic hypoxia. Cardiac-related issues were thought to have contributed to the deaths of at least three and possibly five snorkellers, and of at least one, possibly two compressed gas divers. Conclusions: Snorkelling or diving alone, poor supervision, apnoeic hypoxia, pre-existing medical conditions, lack of recent experience and unfamiliar and/or poorly-functioning equipment were features in several deaths in this series. Reducing delays to CT-scanning and autopsy and coroners' reports documenting that the victim of a drowning was snorkelling or scuba diving at the time are aspects of the investigation of these fatalities that could be improved. © 2015, South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society. All right reserved. Source

Priest N.,University of Melbourne | Baxter J.,Australian Institute of Family Studies | Hayes L.,VIC
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objectives: 1) profile the living environments and 2) examine the social and emotional outcomes of Australian children from Indigenous and cultural and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds at school entry. Method: Secondary analysis of crosssectional data collected in Wave 1 of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n=4,735). Child mental-health outcomes were measured using parent report of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: Significant differences in family and neighbourhood characteristics, including parental income, maternal education, maternal parenting quality and neighbourhood safety, were found in children of Indigenous and CALD backgrounds compared to the reference group of Australian-born, English-speaking children. After controlling for family and neighbourhood characteristics, significant differences in parent-reported SDQ total difficulties were found for Indigenous children. Significant differences in emotional difficulties and peer problems subscales were found for children with overseas-born mothers regardless of English proficiency. Conclusions: Children from Indigenous and CALD backgrounds experience poorer mental health outcomes at school entry than their Australian-born Englishspeaking peers. They are also more likely to be exposed to risk factors for poor child mental-health outcomes within their family and neighbourhood environments. © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia. Source

Providing accessible, cheap and plentiful car parking at commuter railway stations is often advocated as a means of encouraging car drivers to shift to public transport modes for part of their journey. Accordingly, State Governments across Australia have, in recent years, committed significant money to expanding park and ride facilities on their rail networks. While such projects are popular with commuters, questions remain over the role of park and ride in increasing public transport patronage. Passenger interview surveys were carried out at selected railway stations on the Victorian metropolitan and regional rail networks to explore the extent to which park and ride facilities generate a mode shift from car-only modes to more sustainable transport modes. The results of the survey are comparable to the public transport increases recorded in similar studies undertaken in the United Kingdom and the United States. However, a significant proportion of respondents had changed their trip patterns, suggesting that the proportion of former drivers could be higher than that recorded. The study also suggested that the recorded shift resulted from a combination of changes in personal circumstances and transport related factors. These findings have implications for traditional economic models which assume that a return car trip to the city is saved for every diverted driver. Source

Edidin J.P.,University of Chicago | Ganim Z.,VIC | Hunter S.J.,University of Chicago | Karnik N.S.,University of Chicago
Child Psychiatry and Human Development | Year: 2012

Youth homelessness is a growing concern in the United States. Despite difficulties studying this population due to inconsistent definitions of what it means to be a youth and homeless, the current body of research indicates that abuse, family breakdown, and disruptive family relationships are common contributing factors to youth homelessness. Moreover, the experience of homelessness appears to have numerous adverse implications and to affect neurocognitive development and academics, as well as mental and physical health. Substance use, sexually transmitted infections, and psychiatric disorders are particularly prevalent in this population. Whereas some of these problems may be short-lived, the chronic stress and deprivation associated with homelessness may have long-term effects on development and functioning. Further, difficulties accessing adequate and developmentally-appropriate health care contribute to more serious health concerns. Suggestions for future research and interventions are discussed. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. Source

Hudson P.,University of Melbourne | Hudson P.,Queens University of Belfast | Remedios C.,University of Melbourne | Zordan R.,University of Melbourne | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Palliative Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Support for family caregivers, including bereavement follow-up, is a core function of palliative care. Many caregivers acknowledge positive aspects associated with the role; however a considerable proportion will experience poor psychological, social, financial, spiritual, and physical well-being and some will suffer from complicated grief. Many family caregivers have unmet needs and would like more information, preparation, and support to assist them in the caregiving role. There is a shortage of evidence-based strategies to guide health professionals in providing optimal support while the caregiver is providing care and after the patient's death. Purpose: To develop clinical practice guidelines for the psychosocial and bereavement support of family caregivers of palliative care patients. Methods: (1) Literature review; (2) focus groups and structured interviews with key stakeholders within Australia; (3) national and international expert opinion to further develop and refine the guidelines using a modified Delphi process; and (4) endorsement of the guidelines from key palliative care, caregiver, and bereavement organizations (national and international). Results: The guidelines were developed for multidisciplinary health care professionals and clinical services commonly involved in caring for adult patients receiving palliative care in a variety of care sites throughout Australia. These consensus-based guidelines have been endorsed key Australian and international organizations. Conclusions: The guidelines may prove valuable for the international palliative care community and for generalist health care providers who occasionally care for palliative care patients. Research is recommended to explore the uptake, implementation, and effectiveness of the guidelines. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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