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Moore G.W.,Viapath
International Journal of Laboratory Hematology | Year: 2014

Updates to guidelines covering lupus anticoagulant (LA) detection have recently been published by the International Society on Haemostasis and Thrombosis (ISTH) and British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH), in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) published its first LA guideline in 2014. Cross-panel agreement exists on sample manipulation, use of dRVVT analysis, conversion of clotting times to ratios, calculations to demonstrate phospholipid dependence, mixing test interpretation and provision of interpretive reporting. Whilst ISTH restricts assay choice to just dRVVT and activated partial thromboplastin time, BCSH and CLSI consider the case for additional tests. All panels acknowledge the potential for false-negative mixing tests, yet they remain mandated by ISTH and BCSH, the latter, however, indicating that a negative mixing test need not exclude a LA if testing on undiluted plasma is unequivocal. CLSI reprioritizes test order to screen-confirm-mix to reduce false-negative reporting when antibodies are diluted to undetectable levels in mixing tests. Recommendations differ on how to derive cut-off levels, particularly in view of the realities of relatively low donor numbers. Each guideline considers testing of anticoagulated patients, BCSH and CLSI endorsing Taipan snake venom time as a useful supplementary assay in patients on vitamin K antagonists. Although full consensus is not apparent, these publications represent significant moves towards engendering common practices. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Guevara B.E.K.,Southern Philippines Medical Center | Hsu C.-K.,Kings College London | Hsu C.-K.,National Cheng Kung University | Liu L.,Viapath | And 5 more authors.
Australasian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2016

Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare, multisystem X-linked dominant genetic disorder caused by mutations in IKBKG, the encoding inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells. Almost 80% of all cases result from a recurrent intragenic deletion mutation that removes exon 4-10. At present, this mutation can be detected by a multi-primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique although current protocols may preferentially amplify the wild-type allele and miss the deletion. Here, we report a female infant with incontinentia pigmenti that also affected her mother and sister, and two spontaneously aborted male siblings. We developed a modified PCR amplification method that provides more robust detection of the exon 4-10 deletion mutation, which was demonstrated in all affected females in this pedigree. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists. Source

Fong K.,Kings College London | Takeichi T.,Kings College London | Takeichi T.,Nagoya University | Liu L.,Viapath | And 4 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2015

Ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome (OMIM 308205) is a rare X-linked genetic disorder. Mutations in MBTPS2 underlie IFAP syndrome, with 19 different mutations reported to date. Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) is an allelic disorder that results from a single recurrent mutation, p.Asn508Ser. We report a case from the UK of IFAP syndrome resulting from a new mutation, p.Asn508Thr, emphasizing the significant overlap between IFAP and KFSD at both the molecular and clinical levels. An area of alopecia on the scalp of the proband's mother was also noted, suggesting lyonization. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists. Source

Orchard G.E.,Viapath | Shams M.,Viapath | Nwokie T.,Viapath | Bulut C.,Viapath | And 9 more authors.
British Journal of Biomedical Science | Year: 2015

Histological dissection of human tissue has relied on conventional procedures, which have largely remained unchanged for decades. Practices to determine measurement parameters employed in these procedures have largely relied on the use of rulers and weighing scales. It is well documented in the scientific literature that both fixation and processing of tissue can significantly affect the viability of the of tissue sections both for tinctorial and immunocytochemical investigations. Both of these factors can be compounded in their negative effects by inappropriate sampling of tissue at histological cut up. There are five key factors to ensure good surgical grossing technique, flat uniformly perpendicular specimen cutting face, appropriate immobilisation of the tissue specimen during grossing, good visualisation of the cutting tissue face, sharp cutting knives and the grossing knife action. Meeting these factors implies the devices are fit for purpose. Here we describe an innovative approach to designing cut up devices to improve accuracy and precision, which take these five key requirements into consideration. The devices showed accuracy and precision, enabling tissue slices to be produced in a uniformly perpendicular fashion to within 2 mm in thickness and to enable consistency and reproducibility of performance across a series of tissue types. The application of a digital rule on one of these devices ensures accuracy and also enables quality control issues to be clearly assessed. As cellular pathology laboratories conform to ever increasing standards of compliance and performance in practice, the advent of assured precision and accuracy at cut up is awaited. Recommendations from accreditation bodies such as the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS) continue to push for improvements in this area of histological investigation. These newly designed devices may give the answers to these requirements and provide the impetus for a new generation of innovative equipment for histological dissection. Source

Abdul-Wahab A.,Kings College London | Takeichi T.,Kings College London | Takeichi T.,Nagoya University | Liu L.,Viapath | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2016

Mutations in the keratin 10 gene (KRT10) have been shown to underlie several forms of epidermolytic ichthyosis (EI), including generalized, annular and naevoid variants. We investigated an autosomal dominant pedigree with ichthyosis in which there was intrafamilial clinical heterogeneity, with the affected individual family members presenting with features of either erythrokeratoderma progressiva, annular EI, localized or superficial EI, or more generalized EI. Sanger sequencing identified a new heterozygous missense mutation (c.457C>A; p.Leu153Met) in KRT10 in all affected individuals. No additional mutations were identified in the genes for keratin 1 (KRT1) keratin 2 (KRT2), connexin 31 (GJB3) or connexin 30.3 (GJB4) that might account for the clinical heterogeneity seen in this family. Our findings illustrate the intrafamilial variability in phenotype and diverse clinical presentations that can occur in EI resulting from a single mutation in KRT10. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists. Source

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