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Legnaro, Italy

Burgio G.,University of Bologna | Ragaglini G.,SantAnna School of Advanced Studies | Petacchi R.,SantAnna School of Advanced Studies | Ferrari R.,Centro Agricoltura Ambiente Giorgio Nicoli | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin of Insectology

A spatial analysis of Agriotes sordidus (Illiger) (Coleoptera Elateridae) was carried out on data collected by means of pheromone traps in a farm of 500 hectares in northern Italy. The main objective of the paper was to analyse the spatial distribution of this economic pest, in order to optimise the monitoring; another aim was to understanding the spatial patterns of this insect in relation to the geographic and agronomic management of the site investigated. Spatial distribution was studied by means of geostatistical analysis of the total number of captured individuals per year (variable Sum) and the peak of population density (variable Peak). Data were analysed using the total of traps and reduced datasets by means of re-sampling simulations. The semi-variograms showed that adults of A. sordidus exhibited a strong aggregative pattern in the investigated area, confirming previous preliminary studies. Kriging contour maps were used to describe spatial aggregation of A. sordidus. Cross-validation analysis demonstrated that the simulations with 50% of the total of traps produced maps with a good concordance between estimated and measured values, with the caution to maintain a uniform distribution of the sample points within the monitored area. Simulations by means of geostatistics were suitable to optimise the monitoring in order to obtain a compromise between precision and feasibility. This study provided an interpretation of the spatial dynamics of A. sordidus adults on meso-scale, leading to an estimation of the risk-zones for pest damage. Further studies are needed in order to understand the role of a number of agronomic variables on the populations of A. sordidus, to design zones of different risk of infestation and to optimize the monitoring and management of this economic pest in northern Italy. Source

Chiesa S.,University of Parma | Chiesa S.,University of Aveiro | Filonzi L.,University of Parma | Ferrari C.,University of Parma | And 7 more authors.
Fisheries Research

Introduction of non-indigenous taxa by anthropogenic activities may lead to the generation of hybrid forms and cause genetic pollution of native species. Populations of different Salmo species are threatened in Italy by hybridization and introgression caused by allochthonous lineages introduced since historical times. In particular, Salmo marmoratus is currently sympatric with domestic lineages of Salmo trutta in most of its native geographical range and reproductive interfecundity between the two taxa is seriously threatening the genetic purity of the endemic species. To fulfill conservation purposes and fisheries management, an investigation based on single and multilocus DNA fingerprinting was carried out both to assess marble trout genetic diversity and the method's amenability to restocking practices. RFLPs (Restriction Fragments Length Polymorphisms) and SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) in mitochondrial 16S rDNA, D-loop, and nuclear LDH-C1* sequences were genotyped in more than 350 samples collected from different hatcheries in Northern Italy. The combination of the three markers allowed the selection of putative pure individuals of S. marmoratus to be submitted to additional highly polymorphic AFLPs (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms) analyses. Additional benefits of AFLPs over other techniques emerged in connection with their potential power for fish stock identification. In fact, 52% of all analyzed samples were potentially pure marble trout, 4% were pure Atlantic trout and 44% were hybrids showing different combinations of haplotypes/genotypes. The combined approach demonstrated improved resolution to reveal hybridization not detected by classical diagnostic markers, and to select breeders for reintroduction programs. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Staudacher K.,University of Innsbruck | Pitterl P.,University of Innsbruck | Furlan L.,Viale dellUniversita 14 | Cate P.C.,Hebragasse 4 18 | Traugott M.,University of Innsbruck
Bulletin of Entomological Research

Click beetle larvae within the genus Agriotes (Coleoptera: Elateridae), commonly known as wireworms, are abundant ground-dwelling herbivores which can inflict considerable damage to field crops. In Central Europe up to 20 species, which differ in their distribution, ecology and pest status, occur in arable land. However, the identification of these larvae based on morphological characters is difficult or impossible. This hampers progress towards controlling these pests. Here, we present a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach to identify, for the first time, 17 Agriotes species typically found in Central Europe. Diagnostic sequence information was generated and submitted to GenBank, allowing the identification of these species via DNA barcoding. Moreover, multiplex PCR assays were developed to identify the nine most abundant species rapidly within a single-step reaction: Agriotes brevis, A. litigiosus, A. obscurus, A. rufipalpis, A. sordidus, A. sputator, A. ustulatus, A. lineatus and A. proximus. The latter two species remain molecularly indistinguishable, questioning their species status. The multiplex PCR assays proved to be highly specific against non-agrioted elaterid beetles and other non-target soil invertebrates. By testing the molecular identification system with over 900 field-collected larvae, our protocol proved to be a reliable, cheap and quick method to routinely identify Central European Agriotes species. © 2010 Cambridge University Press. Source

Sufyan M.,University of Bonn | Neuhoff D.,University of Bonn | Furlan L.,Viale dellUniversita 14
Agricultural and Forest Entomology

1 The range of attraction of YATLOR pheromone traps was studied to gain information on the number of traps needed for mass trapping of males of two Agriotes species. 2 Male click beetles of the species Agriotes lineatus (L.) and Agriotes obscurus (L.) (25-30 individuals per release point) were marked and released at a distance of 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 60 m from a pheromone trap both along and opposite to the known prevailing wind direction. Traps were regularly inspected over approximately 1 month. The percentage of recaptured beetles was calculated and analyzed using analysis of variance. Maximum sampling ranges and effective sampling areas were calculated. 3 Averaged over all five trials and distances, approximately 40% of the released beetles (A. lineatus and A. obscurus) were recaptured. The percentage recapture of male adults was significantly affected by release distance, whereas no differences were found for species and release direction. 4 Males were recaptured from all release points and the percentage recapture decreased (in part significantly) with increasing distance from 76% (2 m) to 35% (15 m) and 9% (60 m), respectively. Most of the beetles were recaptured within the first 3 days after release, independent of the distance, except 60 m. The effective sampling area for A. lineatus was 1089 m 2 after 12 days and increased to 1735 m 2 after 30 days. Corresponding values for A. obscurus were considerably higher: 1518 m 2 for 12 days and 2633 m 2 for 30 days. 5 We conclude that the range of attraction of the pheromone traps for A. lineatus and A. obscurus is comparatively low, providing high percentage recapture only for release distances up to 10 m. Accordingly, any approach targeted on preventing mating by male mass trapping would require a dense network of pheromone traps. © 2011 The Authors. Agricultural and Forest Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society. Source

Piccoli I.,University of Padua | Chiarini F.,Viale dellUniversita 14 | Carletti P.,University of Padua | Furlan L.,Viale dellUniversita 14 | And 6 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment

Conservation agriculture is one of the agro-environment measures promoted by the Veneto Region (North-eastern Italy) to regulate and support many ecosystem services. This study compared conventional and conservation agriculture management systems in order to evaluate their effects on both SOC stocks and quality i.e. humic C and its molecular weight fractions, microbial C and N. The experiment was set up in 2010 on three farms in Veneto Region. In order to improve the monitoring procedures, a massive soil sampling programme was conducted in 2011 and 2014 in ca. 150 positions, considering the SOC stratification within a 0-50 cm profile.Results suggested that conservation agriculture practices affected SOC distribution rather than its total amount. The retention of crop residues on the soil surface and the absence of tillage operations drove SOC dynamics in the top layer (0-5 cm) of the conservation system, while residues incorporation with ploughing was responsible for SOC accumulation at the 30-50 cm depth in the conventional one. SOC stock variation in the conservation treatment was also influenced by root C input, which was identified as a major factor able to promote SOC accumulation in the 0-30 cm profile. The role of clay on SOC dynamics was not uniform in the three farms since it depended both on the clay amount and its mineral composition. The strong interactions existing between management systems and local soil conditions were also confirmed by the C quality analyses. This research did not demonstrate the benefits of conservation practices on SOC sequestration during the transition period. However, SOC sequestration is only one of the numerous ecosystem services provided by conservation practices. Some of these depend on the C content and quality in the top layers that, as demonstrated in our work, were strongly affected by the C stratification processes triggered by conservation agriculture. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

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