Legnaro, Italy
Legnaro, Italy

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Radaelli G.,University of Padua | Piccirillo A.,University of Padua | Birolo M.,University of Padua | Bertotto D.,University of Padua | And 5 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2017

To evaluate muscle fiber degeneration (MFD) associated with white striping and wooden breast, pectoralis major of 192 broilers differing for genotype (standard vs. high breast yield), gender, and feeding regime (ad libitum vs. restricted rate 80% from 13 to 21 d of age) were sampled at 14, 21, 28, 35, and 46 d of age for histological analyses by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining to evaluate tissue morphology, Masson's trichrome to identify collagen presence, and Oil red and Nile blue for lipid presence. Microvessels (diameter ≤15 μm), nuclei positive to anti-cleaved lamin A and monoclonal proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antisera were counted to assess apoptotic and regenerative processes, respectively. Significant differences were found according to feeding system, age, and their interactions. The frequency of chickens with MFD was higher with ad libitum than restricted feeding (75.0% vs. 62.5%; P = 0.01) and increased with age (18.8%, 28.1%, 75.1%, 96.9%, and 96.9% at 14, 21, 28, 35, and 46 d). However, at 14 d a similar frequency (18.8%) was found in all broilers; at 21 d, MFD occurred more in broilers fed ad libitum than in those under restriction (50.0% vs. 6.3%; P < 0.01); at 28 d differences were reduced (87.5% vs. 62.5%; P = 0.10) to disappear by 35 (100% and 93.8%) and 46 d (96.9% and 96.9%). The number of microvessels decreased with age (20.7 to 9.46; P < 0.001) and the number of nuclei positive to the anti-cleaved lamin A antibody increased. At histology, MFD at 46 d corresponded to loss of typical cross striations, massive necrotic process, degenerating fibers surrounded by inflammatory cells, scattered fibers in an abundant collagen-rich connective tissue, numerous adipose cells; necrotic fibers showed a high percentage of apoptotic nuclei, and regenerating fibers appeared positive to anti-PCNA antibody. In conclusion, MFD soon occurred after 2 wk of growth and increased dramatically within 28 d. Early feed restriction reduced MFD as long as animals were restricted, but no residual effect was recorded after re-alimentation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Staudacher K.,University of Innsbruck | Pitterl P.,University of Innsbruck | Furlan L.,Viale dellUniversita 14 | Cate P.C.,Hebragasse 4 18 | Traugott M.,University of Innsbruck
Bulletin of Entomological Research | Year: 2011

Click beetle larvae within the genus Agriotes (Coleoptera: Elateridae), commonly known as wireworms, are abundant ground-dwelling herbivores which can inflict considerable damage to field crops. In Central Europe up to 20 species, which differ in their distribution, ecology and pest status, occur in arable land. However, the identification of these larvae based on morphological characters is difficult or impossible. This hampers progress towards controlling these pests. Here, we present a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach to identify, for the first time, 17 Agriotes species typically found in Central Europe. Diagnostic sequence information was generated and submitted to GenBank, allowing the identification of these species via DNA barcoding. Moreover, multiplex PCR assays were developed to identify the nine most abundant species rapidly within a single-step reaction: Agriotes brevis, A. litigiosus, A. obscurus, A. rufipalpis, A. sordidus, A. sputator, A. ustulatus, A. lineatus and A. proximus. The latter two species remain molecularly indistinguishable, questioning their species status. The multiplex PCR assays proved to be highly specific against non-agrioted elaterid beetles and other non-target soil invertebrates. By testing the molecular identification system with over 900 field-collected larvae, our protocol proved to be a reliable, cheap and quick method to routinely identify Central European Agriotes species. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.


Burgio G.,University of Bologna | Ragaglini G.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies | Petacchi R.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies | Ferrari R.,Centro Agricoltura Ambiente Giorgio Nicoli | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin of Insectology | Year: 2012

A spatial analysis of Agriotes sordidus (Illiger) (Coleoptera Elateridae) was carried out on data collected by means of pheromone traps in a farm of 500 hectares in northern Italy. The main objective of the paper was to analyse the spatial distribution of this economic pest, in order to optimise the monitoring; another aim was to understanding the spatial patterns of this insect in relation to the geographic and agronomic management of the site investigated. Spatial distribution was studied by means of geostatistical analysis of the total number of captured individuals per year (variable Sum) and the peak of population density (variable Peak). Data were analysed using the total of traps and reduced datasets by means of re-sampling simulations. The semi-variograms showed that adults of A. sordidus exhibited a strong aggregative pattern in the investigated area, confirming previous preliminary studies. Kriging contour maps were used to describe spatial aggregation of A. sordidus. Cross-validation analysis demonstrated that the simulations with 50% of the total of traps produced maps with a good concordance between estimated and measured values, with the caution to maintain a uniform distribution of the sample points within the monitored area. Simulations by means of geostatistics were suitable to optimise the monitoring in order to obtain a compromise between precision and feasibility. This study provided an interpretation of the spatial dynamics of A. sordidus adults on meso-scale, leading to an estimation of the risk-zones for pest damage. Further studies are needed in order to understand the role of a number of agronomic variables on the populations of A. sordidus, to design zones of different risk of infestation and to optimize the monitoring and management of this economic pest in northern Italy.


Cazorzi F.,University of Udine | Fontana G.D.,University of Padua | Luca A.D.,Viale dellUniversita 14 | Sofia G.,University of Padua | Tarolli P.,University of Padua
Hydrological Processes | Year: 2013

Drainage networks in agrarian landscape within floodplains constitute surface's discontinuities that are expected to affect hydrological response during floods. Drainage network recognition and quantification of water storage capacity within channels are, therefore, crucial for watershed planning and management. These evaluations require accurate spatial information for the area of interest and in most cases, when studying large catchments, broad datasets of ditches locations and descriptions are not available. In order to characterize drainage networks for large areas, the availability of high resolution topography derived by airborne laser scanner (LiDAR) represents a new and effective tool. Nowadays LiDAR DTMs covering large areas are readily available for public authorities, and there is a greater and more widespread interest in the application of such information for the development of automated methods aimed at solving geomorphological and hydrological problems. While LiDAR DTMs reliability in steep landscape has been proven by several recent studies, only few researches have been conducted to take into account the effectiveness of these data in agrarian low relief landscapes. The goal of this research is to propose a semi-automatic approach based on a LiDAR DTM to (1) detect drainage networks in agrarian/floodplain contexts, and (2) to estimate some of the network summary statistics (network length, width, drainage density and storage capacity). The procedure is applied in two typical alluvial-plain areas in the North East of Italy, and tested comparing automatically derived network with surveyed ones. The results underline the capability of high resolution DTMs for drainage network detection and characterization in the context of agrarian landscapes within floodplains, opening at the same time new challenges to evaluate some hydrological processes in these areas. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Rosso M.D.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA Viticulture | Soligo S.,Viale dellUniversita 14 | Panighel A.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA Viticulture | Carraro R.,Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA Viticulture | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2016

Grape dehydration is an oenological process used for the production of high-quality reinforced and sweet wines. Corvina and Raboso Piave are two red grape varieties used for production of high-quality Italian wines, such as Recioto, Amarone di Valpolicella and Raboso Passito. Changes of polyphenolic composition of the grapes as a consequence of the withering were studied by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF); for identification of compounds a homemade HR-MS database of grape and wine metabolites, was used. Concomitant with trans-resveratrol and viniferins, relevant increases of other stilbenes (piceatannol, resveratrol trimers and tetramers) and antioxidant compounds (quercetin, syringetin and tamarixetin) were observed. These compounds are part of the induced metabolism occurring during the withering process and in general improve the nutraceutical properties of grapes and wines. On the other hand, longer processes showed to decrease flavan-3-ols and glycoside flavonols. Constant increase of E/Z ε-viniferin ratio was observed in all samples, and this parameter can be used to monitor the process. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Cattani M.,University of Padua | Maccarana L.,University of Padua | Sartori A.,Viale dellUniversita 14 | Converso R.,Viale dellUniversita 14 | Bailoni L.,University of Padua
Poljoprivreda | Year: 2015

This experiment compared silages obtained from ten hybrids of sorghum grown in three farms of the Po Valley, in terms of in vitro degradability, gas production (GP), and energy value. Hybrids were sown on 30 experimental plots (three plots per each hybrid), harvested at late-milk stage of maturity and ensiled for 60 d into 30 mini-silos (3 silos×10 hybrids). After ensiling, silages were analyzed for proximate composition, pH, ammonia N, and fermentation acid profile. Degradability of NDF (NDFd) and of true dry matter (TDMd) was determined after 48 h of incubation using sequentially DaisyII incubator and Ankom220 Fibre Analyzer. Two incubation runs (at 48 h) were carried out to evaluate in vitro GP of silages, and to estimate their energy content. All data were submitted to ANOVA considering “hybrid” and “farm” as sources of variation. The interaction between hybrid and farm was never significant and it was excluded from the statistical model. The contents of dry matter and NDF of silages were influenced by hybrid and farm (P<0.001). In contrast, the percentage of non-structural carbohydrates of silages was affected by hybrid (P<0.001) but not by farm. All chemical parameters were significantly affected by hybrid (P<0.01) and, except NCS, by farm (P<0.05). In vitro parameters (NDFd after 48 h and GP at 24 and 48 h of incubation) were influenced by hybrid and farm (P<0.001 and P<0.01), respectively. Among hybrids and farms, large differences (P<0.001) were also found out as regard to net energy content of sorghum silages. Because of this large variability, sorghum silages can be included successfully in ruminant diets considering the peculiarities of each hybrid with respect to the energy requirements of dairy cows. © 2015, Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Padua and Viale dellUniversita 14
Type: | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2016

To evaluate muscle fiber degeneration (MFD) associated with white striping and wooden breast, pectoralis major of 192 broilers differing for genotype (standard vs. high breast yield), gender, and feeding regime (ad libitum vs. restricted rate 80% from 13 to 21 d of age) were sampled at 14, 21, 28, 35, and 46 d of age for histological analyses by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining to evaluate tissue morphology, Massons trichrome to identify collagen presence, and Oil red and Nile blue for lipid presence. Microvessels (diameter 15m), nuclei positive to anti-cleaved lamin A and monoclonal proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antisera were counted to assess apoptotic and regenerative processes, respectively. Significant differences were found according to feeding system, age, and their interactions. The frequency of chickens with MFD was higher with ad libitum than restricted feeding (75.0%vs. 62.5%; P =0.01) and increased with age (18.8%, 28.1%, 75.1%, 96.9%, and 96.9% at 14, 21, 28, 35, and 46 d). However, at 14 d a similar frequency (18.8%) was found in all broilers; at 21 d, MFD occurred more in broilers fed ad libitum than in those under restriction (50.0%vs. 6.3%; P <0.01); at 28 d differences were reduced (87.5%vs. 62.5%; P =0.10) to disappear by 35 (100% and 93.8%) and 46 d (96.9% and 96.9%). The number of microvessels decreased with age (20.7 to 9.46; P <0.001) and the number of nuclei positive to the anti-cleaved lamin A antibody increased. At histology, MFD at 46 d corresponded to loss of typical cross striations, massive necrotic process, degenerating fibers surrounded by inflammatory cells, scattered fibers in an abundant collagen-rich connective tissue, numerous adipose cells; necrotic fibers showed a high percentage of apoptotic nuclei, and regenerating fibers appeared positive to anti-PCNA antibody. In conclusion, MFD soon occurred after 2 wk of growth and increased dramatically within 28 d. Early feed restriction reduced MFD as long as animals were restricted, but no residual effect was recorded after re-alimentation.


Sufyan M.,University of Bonn | Neuhoff D.,University of Bonn | Furlan L.,viale dellUniversita 14
Agricultural and Forest Entomology | Year: 2011

1 The range of attraction of YATLOR pheromone traps was studied to gain information on the number of traps needed for mass trapping of males of two Agriotes species. 2 Male click beetles of the species Agriotes lineatus (L.) and Agriotes obscurus (L.) (25-30 individuals per release point) were marked and released at a distance of 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 60 m from a pheromone trap both along and opposite to the known prevailing wind direction. Traps were regularly inspected over approximately 1 month. The percentage of recaptured beetles was calculated and analyzed using analysis of variance. Maximum sampling ranges and effective sampling areas were calculated. 3 Averaged over all five trials and distances, approximately 40% of the released beetles (A. lineatus and A. obscurus) were recaptured. The percentage recapture of male adults was significantly affected by release distance, whereas no differences were found for species and release direction. 4 Males were recaptured from all release points and the percentage recapture decreased (in part significantly) with increasing distance from 76% (2 m) to 35% (15 m) and 9% (60 m), respectively. Most of the beetles were recaptured within the first 3 days after release, independent of the distance, except 60 m. The effective sampling area for A. lineatus was 1089 m 2 after 12 days and increased to 1735 m 2 after 30 days. Corresponding values for A. obscurus were considerably higher: 1518 m 2 for 12 days and 2633 m 2 for 30 days. 5 We conclude that the range of attraction of the pheromone traps for A. lineatus and A. obscurus is comparatively low, providing high percentage recapture only for release distances up to 10 m. Accordingly, any approach targeted on preventing mating by male mass trapping would require a dense network of pheromone traps. © 2011 The Authors. Agricultural and Forest Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.


Sufyan M.,University of Bonn | Neuhoff D.,University of Bonn | Furlan L.,viale dellUniversita 14
Bulletin of Insectology | Year: 2013

The use of sex pheromones as an option to control wireworms via mass trapping and the biology of Agriotes lineatus (L.) were investigated in a long-term field experiment at an organic research farm in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Plots supplied with sex pheromone traps were compared with untreated control plots. Over 5 years, a total of 12,378 male adults of A. lineatus, Agriotes obscurus (L.) and Agriotes sputator (L.) were captured in six traps located at 40 m distance in a grass-clover ley. The swarming period of the males lasted from late April to late August with one major and a small peak in the successive years for all three species. During 2006 and 2008 A. lineatus was the dominant species trapped with 4,005 male adults followed by A. obscurus (3,045) and A. sputator (1,213). The total number of wireworms captured over all sampling dates only slightly differed between the two pheromone treated plots (201 individuals) and the two control plots (230 individuals) suggesting no effect of mass trapping on wireworm abundance. The peak oviposition period of A. lineatus lasted from May to early June. Over a 30 month period the larvae passed through 8 instar stages (life cycle not completed) and attaining L4 instar stage before the first and L8 before the second overwintering. Non-chemical wireworm control will have to focus on cultural approaches including soil tillage and rotation design taking data on biology into account.


PubMed | Council for Agricultural Research and Economics CREA Viticulture, Israel Agricultural Research Organization and Viale dellUniversita 14
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS | Year: 2016

Grape dehydration is an oenological process used for the production of high-quality reinforced and sweet wines. Corvina and Raboso Piave are two red grape varieties used for production of high-quality Italian wines, such as Recioto, Amarone di Valpolicella and Raboso Passito. Changes of polyphenolic composition of the grapes as a consequence of the withering were studied by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF); for identification of compounds a homemade HR-MS database of grape and wine metabolites, was used. Concomitant with trans-resveratrol and viniferins, relevant increases of other stilbenes (piceatannol, resveratrol trimers and tetramers) and antioxidant compounds (quercetin, syringetin and tamarixetin) were observed. These compounds are part of the induced metabolism occurring during the withering process and in general improve the nutraceutical properties of grapes and wines. On the other hand, longer processes showed to decrease flavan-3-ols and glycoside flavonols. Constant increase of E/Z -viniferin ratio was observed in all samples, and this parameter can be used to monitor the process. Copyright 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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