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Gastaldelli M.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Delle Venezie Sezione di Verona | Stefani E.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Delle Venezie Sezione di Verona | Lettini A.A.,viale dellUniversita 10 | Pozzato N.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Delle Venezie Sezione di Verona
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

Differentiation among types I, II, and III is the primary step in typing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. We propose an innovative approach based on detection of gyrase B (gyrB) gene polymorphisms by suspension array technology, with high discriminatory power and high-throughput potential. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Influenza A viruses infect a large number of mammals and birds resulting in sporadic infections, seasonal epidemics, epizootics and pandemics. The segmented genome of the virus encodes 10 or 11 proteins depending on the strain. The neuraminidase, non-structural 1 and the PB1-F2 proteins are known to be variable in their length due to very specific deletions, truncations and elongations. This review presents an update on what is currently known about these three proteins and discusses their length variations in relation to virulence and host adaptation in addition to identifying possible areas of future research. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

Capua I.,viale dellUniversita 10 | Alexander D.,Reference Laboratory for ND AI
Avian Diseases | Year: 2010

The ongoing animal and human health crises caused by influenza viruses of H5N1 subtype have focused the attention of international organizations and donors on the need for improved veterinary infrastructure in developing countries and the need for improved communication between the human and animal health sectors. The circulation and re-emergence of high-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses of H5N1 subtype are still major concerns because of potential effects on human health, on the profitability of poultry industries, and on the livelihood of the rural environment. Significant improvements toward the management of these outbreaks have occurred worldwide, including new legislative tools, intervention strategies, and investments in capacity building in both developed and developing countries. This has led to a greater understanding of certain aspects of this infection and of its pandemic potential, although we are still far from certainties and from resolving the situation. Given that genetic analysis of the viruses causing human pandemics since the beginning of the 20th century have indicated that at least the hemagglutinin gene was donated from an avian progenitor virus, it would seem reasonable to exploit the information we have from an animal health perspective to support public health policies. Possibly the biggest challenge we have is to find novel ways to maximize the use of the information that is generated as a result of the improved networking and diagnostic capacities. In the era of globalization, emerging and re-emerging diseases of public health relevance are a concern to developing and developed countries and are a real threat because of the interdependence of the global economy. Communication and analysis systems currently available should be tailored to meet global health priorities, and used to develop and constantly improve novel systems for the exploitation of information to generate knowledge. Another fundamental task the veterinary community needs to deliver on is that of bringing relevant information to international discussion tables at which international control and prevention are presented and optimized. The veterinary community has knowledge and areas of expertise that should undoubtedly be part of strategic decisions and are essential to manage the human and animal health implications of avian influenza infections. © 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists. Source

International trade in bees and bee products is a complex issue, affected by their different origins and uses. The trade in bees, which poses the main risk for disease dissemination, is very active and not all transactions may be officially registered by the competent authorities. Globally, bee health continues to deteriorate as pathogens, pests, parasites and diseases are spread internationally through legitimate trade, smuggling and well-intentioned but illadvised bee introductions by professionals. International trade rules strengthen the ability of many countries to protect bee health while trading but also carry obligations. Countries that are Members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) should only restrict imports to protect against identifiable health risks. If imports are safe, trade should be permitted. The trading rules of the WTO have given greater importance to the international standards applicable to bee health, developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health, which aims to prevent the spread of animal diseases while facilitating international trade in animals and animal products. Source

Mari S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Tiozzo B.,viale dellUniversita 10 | Capozza D.,University of Padua | Ravarotto L.,viale dellUniversita 10
Food Research International | Year: 2012

Salmonella is one of the most common pathogens in the European Union which can spread in the domestic environment due to incorrect food handling practices. This study has investigated the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to uncover the processes that lead to the formation of the intentions and thus to a specific behavior, i.e. consuming meat and fresh sausages only if well cooked. Two parallel longitudinal studies comprising Italian young adults and adults were carried out. In a two week period, participants were administered two questionnaires measuring behavioral intentions and their antecedents in the first wave, and self-reported behavior toward the target behavior in the second one. Results showed the superior predictive power of the TPB plus past behavior. From a cognitive perspective, the samples differed: the actual behavior of young adults derives from intentions and perceived control, whereas the behavior of adults depends only on past behavior. Findings suggest that food risk-communication should consider the differences in behavior models. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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