Time filter

Source Type

Handa S.,UNICEF Office of Research Innocenti | Seidenfeld D.,American Institutes for Research | Davis B.,Viale delle Terme di Caracalla | Tembo G.,56 Jesmondine
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management

Accumulated evidence from dozens of cash transfer (CT) programs across the world suggests that there are few interventions that can match the range of impacts and cost-effectiveness of a small, predictable monetary transfer to poor families in developing countries. However, individual published impact assessments typically focus on only one program and one outcome. This article presents two-year impacts of the Zambian Government's Child Grant, an unconditional CT to families with children under age 5, across a wide range of domains including consumption, productive activity, and women and children's outcomes, making this one of the first studies to assess both protective and productive impacts of a national unconditional CT program. We show strong impacts on consumption, food security, savings, and productive activity. However, impacts in areas such as child nutritional status and schooling depend on initial conditions of the household, suggesting that cash alone is not enough to solve all constraints faced by these poor, rural households. Nevertheless, the apparent transformative effects of this program suggest that unconditional transfers in very poor settings can contribute to both protection and development outcomes. © 2015 the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. Source

Van der Knaap M.,Food and Agriculture Organization | Katonda K.I.,Lake Tanganyika Authority | De Graaf G.J.,Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management

From 1999 to 2011 some regions in the Lake Tanganyika Basin experienced humanitarian crises that displaced hundreds of thousands of people to neighboring countries. When relative calm returned to the region in 2008, an influx of displaced peoples and refugees returned to the lake seeking their ancestral fishing grounds. Well-meaning non-governmental organizations and United Nations-organizations donated fishing equipment to these returning people to aid their livelihood opportunities. These fishing programs, however, increased uncontrolled fishing effort on Lake Tanganyika beyond that of previous levels, resulting in decreasing fish catches. Increased monitoring of the fishery, therefore, became essential. In 2009, as a result of uncontrolled fishing effort due to the influx of returnees, inefficient national efforts to monitor their fisheries, and the observed decline of fishery resources, the four countries bordering Lake Tanganyika (Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania and Zambia) established a regional coordinating body called the Lake Tanganyika Authority to implement fisheries conservation and management measures in compliance with the Convention on the Sustainable Management of Lake Tanganyika. To inform and enable a fisheries monitoring program on Lake Tanganyika, the Authority conducted a lake-wide fisheries frame survey in 2011 to inventory the number of fishermen, fishing units and fisheries infrastructure around Lake Tanganyika. When comparing the 2011 frame survey with data from a similar survey conducted in 1995 (the two most extensive studies to date on Lake Tanganyika), results revealed troubling trends in fish capacity, including: an increase in illegal fishing gear, a doubling of the total number of fishermen and fishing units, and a decline in catch rates since 2002 (based on Burundi data which has been consistently collected). This article analyzes the trends of the Lake Tanganyika fishery, including: fishing effort, the changing uses of gear, and trends in employment in the fishery. Because of the observed increase of fishing capacity (e.g. the numbers of vessels, licenses and fishermen), this article addresses whether an effective fishery management program can be implemented on the lake. Past management efforts have been made from within the basin by the individual countries (Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania and Zambia), transnational organizations (Food and Agriculture Organization), and the Lake Tanganyika Authority. Using current notions of fishery management on large lakes in the region and ideas from a case study from Gambia, West Africa, this study suggests that effective fishery management on Lake Tanganyika requires the adoption of a formal Monitoring, Control & Surveillance system, community surveillance, an improvement in licensing systems, and a limitation in the number of fishermen and fishing units. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Van der Knaap M.,Food and Agriculture Organization | Kamitenga D.M.,National Coordination Unit | Many L.N.,National Coordination Unit | Tambwe A.E.,National Coordination Unit | De Graaf G.J.,Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management

Since the first regional lakewide fisheries frame survey on Lake Tanganyika in 1995, no fisheries census was conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo and therefore the results of the second lakewide frame survey in 2011 should be studied intensively as numerous changes took place in the region in general and along the Congolese coastline in particular. In the capital city, Kinshasa, at a distance of approximately 2000 km from the lake, Lake Tanganyika is known as the water body where the fish die of old age according to Gayo Lemba, Chairman of the Lake Tanganyika Authority Management Committee for Democratic Republic of Congo from a personal communication. The results of the 2011 frame survey indicate that fish were not allowed to reach an old age as the fishing capacity over time had more than doubled as compared to the situation in 1995. The fisheries resources were considered under high pressure by the end of the previous millennium and therefore a Framework Fisheries Management Plan was developed by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to start managing the fisheries (both fish and fishermen) with a view to a regional lakewide approach involving the neighboring riparian countries. The present article describes the major findings of the frame survey along the littoral zone of Democratic Republic of Congo in 2011 in comparison with the results from the first lakewide regional frame survey in 1995. Not only fishermen increased in number, but also fishing canoes and women processors as well as traders. The approach taken by Democratic Republic of Congo, involving a new sort of co-management, contributes to peace, development and relative stability in this fragile region. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Schwilch G.,University of Bern | Bestelmeyer B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Bunning S.,Viale delle Terme di Caracalla | Critchley W.,VU University Amsterdam | And 9 more authors.
Land Degradation and Development

Although sustainable land management (SLM) is widely promoted to prevent and mitigate land degradation and desertification, its monitoring and assessment (M&A) has received much less attention. This paper compiles methodological approaches which to date have been little reported in the literature. It draws lessons from these experiences and identifies common elements and future pathways as a basis for a global approach. The paper starts with local level methods where the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework catalogues SLM case studies. This tool has been included in the local level assessment of Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA) and in the EU-DESIRE project. Complementary site-based approaches can enhance an ecological process-based understanding of SLM variation. At national and sub-national levels, a joint WOCAT/LADA/DESIRE spatial assessment based on land use systems identifies the status and trends of degradation and SLM, including causes, drivers and impacts on ecosystem services. Expert consultation is combined with scientific evidence and enhanced where necessary with secondary data and indicator databases. At the global level, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) knowledge from the land (KM:Land) initiative uses indicators to demonstrate impacts of SLM investments. Key lessons learnt include the need for a multi-scale approach, making use of common indicators and a variety of information sources, including scientific data and local knowledge through participatory methods. Methodological consistencies allow cross-scale analyses, and findings are analysed and documented for use by decision-makers at various levels. Effective M&A of SLM [e.g. for United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)] requires a comprehensive methodological framework agreed by the major players. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Discover hidden collaborations