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Marina di Pisa, Italy

Nardoni S.,Viale delle Piagge | Brombin M.,DVM | Sbrana A.,DVM | Mancianti F.,Viale delle Piagge
Veterinary Ophthalmology | Year: 2010

Objective: The aims of the present paper were to: (i) identify and quantify conjunctival fungi isolated from healthy cows; (ii) verify the influence of different methods of farm management on the prevalence (percentage of positive cultures for each fungal species per farm) of conjunctival fungi. Material and methods: Forty Friesian and twenty Limousin female cows aged 1-10 years stabled in three farms with different managements (farm 1: cows housed strictly indoors; farm 2: cows housed outside during the day and inside the stall during the night; farm 3: cows housed strictly outdoors) were investigated for conjunctival fungal flora. Air and food were also tested. Specimens were collected every season during a 2-year study. Identification of colonies of filamentous fungi was achieved to the genus level on the basis of macro- and microscopic features. Results: The total number of eyes positive for fungi ranged from 85 to 100% at farm 1, from 65 to 95% at farm 2, and from 55 to 95% at farm 3. Fungi most frequently isolated from conjunctival fornix were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. Statistical analysis did not show any differences in fungal prevalences among the three farms during the same season. Some fungal species were consistently isolated while others were intermittently isolated. Conclusions: Fungi found in the conjunctival fornix of cows might represent transient seeding from the environment, as suspected in other species. The prevalence of conjunctival fungal organisms is not different in cattle housed indoors vs. outdoors. © 2010 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

Palumbo F.S.,University of Palermo | Fiorica C.,University of Palermo | Pitarresi G.,University of Palermo | Pitarresi G.,CNR Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology Alberto Monroy | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry B | Year: 2014

A two or one pot synthesis has been used for the reaction of hyaluronic acid (HA) with octadecylamine (C18) and hydrazine (Hy). In both cases, the chemical derivatization involved primary hydroxyl groups of hyaluronic acid and not its carboxyl groups, whose presence is important for receptor interaction. In this way, Hy-HA-C18 derivatives have been obtained with appropriate hydrophobic and hydrophilic character. Their ability to form homogeneous physical hydrogels has been evaluated as well as the possibility to obtain porous sponges through salt leaching technology. Sponges showing the highest porosity, potentially compatible with cell entrapment, have been characterized with regard to their physicochemical and biological properties. Swelling ability under simulated physiological conditions and stability in the absence or in the presence of hyaluronidase have been investigated. Bovine chondrocytes were viable in Hy-HA-C18 sponges as determined with MTS assay and were able to produce collagen and glycosaminoglycans, as assessed by using Masson's trichrome and Alcian blue, respectively. Finally, in vivo degradation of Hy-HA-C18 sponges has been confirmed after subcutaneous implantation in mice until 6 weeks. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Martini M.,Viale delle Piagge | Altomonte I.,Viale delle Piagge | Salari F.,Viale delle Piagge
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2012

To improve knowledge of the lipid component of ewes' colostrum, we took individual samples from seven Massese ewes, reared on the same farm, homogeneous in terms of parity and feed, and kept indoors from 10 d before partum. Samples were taken during the first 15 d lactation, starting 10 h post partum. Colostrum from the first 10 h post partum showed high contents of dry matter (24.58%), fat (8.21%), proteins (12.44%), solids-not-fat (16.95%), a large average diameter of fat globules (4.07 μm), and high monounsaturated fatty acids (36.17% of total fatty acids) and essential fatty acid percentages (C20:3, C20:4 and C22:6). The amounts of lactose (3.23%) and saturated fatty acids (61.67% of total fatty acids) in the colostrum were lower than those found in milk. The nutritional characteristics of colostrum seem to represent a physiological adaptation to the requirements of the lambs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Martini M.,Viale delle Piagge | Altomonte I.,Viale delle Piagge | Salari F.,Viale delle Piagge
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2012

Over the last few years the interest of scientists in the nutritional value of milk and dairy products has been increasing as a result of the role of specific components such as individual fatty acids (FAs) in health maintenance and chronic diseases. Milk fatty acid composition has been reported to change with the morphometric characteristics of milk fat globules. Although some studies have investigated the relationship between milk fatty acids and the morphometric characteristics of milk fat globules in cows, this relationship has not been sufficiently explored in ewe's milk.The aim of this study was to check how the nutritional value of fatty acid profile in ewe's milk is linked to changes in the morphometric characteristics of milk fat globules (MFGs).The study involved sampling and analyzing bulk milk from a dairy that collects and manufactures milk from six flocks of Massese ewes. All the ewes were reared in the same area of Tuscany (Italy) and were fed according to a grazing system. Milk samples were taken over a month.Results highlighted a negative correlation between the number of milk fat globules/mL and the average diameter of the MFGs. In addition, the number of MFGs was positively related with n-3 docosapentaenoic acid, long chain FAs, monounsaturated FAs, and the n-3/n-6 ratio. It was negatively related on the other hand, with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), n-6 FAs, thrombogenic index and the linoleic/linolenic acid ratio.MFGs >5 μm were positively related with lauric and vaccenic acids, with short chain FAs, PUFAs, n-6 FAs, and the linoleic/linolenic ratio; whereas MFGs <2 μm were negatively related with PUFAs, n-6 and the linoleic/linolenic ratio.In conclusion, adjusting the average diameter of MFGs could modify the nutritional value of ewe's milk and dairy products, favoring better health effects. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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