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Davis S.R.,Vialactia Biosciences Ltd. | Davis S.R.,Livestock Improvement Corporation LIC | South C.R.,Vialactia Biosciences Ltd. | South C.R.,Novogy Inc.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

Lactoferrin is a multifunctional glycoprotein with a range of antimicrobial and immune-related properties that is found at >10-fold higher concentration in human milk (~1.7. g/L) relative to bovine milk (~0.15. g/L). Consumer demand is increasing for bovine lactoferrin through a wide range of nutritional and cosmetic consumer products. Increasing lactoferrin yield and concentration in bovine milk could assist in satisfying this increasing demand and may also help in increasing resistance to bovine mammary infection. Two experiments with cows in mid and late lactation were carried out to examine milking strategies to increase milk lactoferrin concentration and yield. Milking was suspended in cows normally milked twice daily, for periods of 2, 4, or 7. d (mid lactation) or 2 or 4. d (late lactation) after which cows were milked out and twice-daily milking resumed for 4. d. In all groups, lactoferrin concentration was significantly increased during the remilking period, approaching concentrations similar to those found in human milk (~1. g/L). Lactoferrin yields were significantly higher in all treatment groups, although increasing the nonmilking period beyond 2. d offered no advantage. Milk yield was lower initially after resumption of milking but recovered to preexperimental values by the fourth day of remilking in all groups, except the 4-d nonmilking group in late lactation. Milk somatic cell count was significantly elevated in all groups at the start of remilking but had substantially reduced by d 4 and reached a preexperimental level in the 2-d nonmilking group of mid-lactation cows. In summary, extended milking intervals can be used as a tool to produce a short-term increase in the concentration and yield of lactoferrin from bovine milk during established lactation, without any apparent long-term effects on milk yield and quality. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.

Emanuelle S.,University of Melbourne | Hossain M.I.,University of Melbourne | Moller I.E.,Vialactia Biosciences Ltd. | Pedersen H.L.,Copenhagen University | And 10 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2015

Summary SNF1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) is the plant orthologue of the evolutionarily-conserved SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinase family that contributes to cellular energy homeostasis. Functional as heterotrimers, family members comprise a catalytic α subunit and non-catalytic β and γ subunits; multiple isoforms of each subunit type exist, giving rise to various isoenzymes. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains homologues of each subunit type, and, in addition, two atypical subunits, β3 and βγ, with unique domain architecture, that are found only amongst plants, suggesting atypical heterotrimers. The AtSnRK1 subunit structure was determined using recombinant protein expression and endogenous co-immunoprecipitation, and six unique isoenzyme combinations were identified. Each heterotrimeric isoenzyme comprises a catalytic α subunit together with the unique βγ subunit and one of three non-catalytic β subunits: β1, β2 or the plant-specific β3 isoform. Thus, the AtSnRK1 heterotrimers contain the atypical βγ subunit rather than a conventional γ subunit. Mammalian AMPK heterotrimers are phosphorylated on the T-loop (pThr175/176) within both catalytic a subunits. However, AtSnRK1 is insensitive to AMP and ADP, and is resistant to T-loop dephosphorylation by protein phosphatases, a process that inactivates other SNF1/AMPK family members. In addition, we show that SnRK1 is inhibited by a heat-labile, >30 kDa, soluble proteinaceous factor that is present in the lysate of young rosette leaves. Finally, none of the three SnRK1 carbohydrate-binding modules, located in the β1, β2 and βγ subunits, associate with various carbohydrates, including starch, the plant analogue of glycogen to which AMPK binds in vitro. These data clearly demonstrate that AtSnRK1 is an atypical member of the SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 family. Significance Statement Here we show that SnRK1, an energy-sensing enzyme found in plants, can exist as six different isoenzymes. Compared to AMP-activated protein kinase, the mammalian homologue, SnRK1 is not affected by phosphorylation, nucleotides or carbohydrates. This knowledge will contribute to understanding the role of SnRK1 in how plants cope with stress and maintain crop yield. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Koetschan C.,Agresearch Ltd. | Kittelmann S.,Agresearch Ltd. | Lu J.,Agresearch Ltd. | Al-Halbouni D.,Vialactia Biosciences Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) is a popular barcode marker for fungi and in particular the ITS1 has been widely used for the anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota). A good number of validated reference sequences of isolates as well as a large number of environmental sequences are available in public databases. Its highly variable nature predisposes the ITS1 for low level phylogenetics; however, it complicates the establishment of reproducible alignments and the reconstruction of stable phylogenetic trees at higher taxonomic levels (genus and above). Here, we overcame these problems by proposing a common core secondary structure of the ITS1 of the anaerobic fungi employing a Hidden Markov Model-based ITS1 sequence annotation and a helix-wise folding approach. We integrated the additional structural information into phylogenetic analyses and present for the first time an automated sequence-structure-based taxonomy of the ITS1 of the anaerobic fungi. The methodology developed is transferable to the ITS1 of other fungal groups, and the robust taxonomy will facilitate and improve high-throughput anaerobic fungal community structure analysis of samples from various environments. © 2014 Koetschan et al.

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