Olavarria V.H.,Austral University of Chile |
Valdivia S.,Austral University of Chile |
Salas B.,Austral University of Chile |
Villalba M.,Austral University of Chile |
And 5 more authors.
Several viruses, including Orthomyxovirus, utilize cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) for viral genomic replication and survival within host cells. However, the role of ROS in early events of viral entry and signal induction has not been elucidated. Here, we show that ISA virus (ISAV) induces ROS production very early during infection of CHSE-214 and SHK-1. Ycells, and that production is sustained over the observed 24. h post-infection. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family is responsible for important signaling pathways. In this study, we report that ISAV activates ERK and p38 in Salmo salar. In salmonid macrophages, while ERK was required for SOD, GLURED, p47phox expression, p38 regulated the ROS production by the NADPH oxidase complex activation. These results, together with the presence of several consensus target motifs for p38 MAPK in the promoter of the S. salar p47phox gene, suggest that p38 MAPK regulates p47phox gene expression in fish through the activation of this key transcription factor. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Apablaza P.,University of Bergen |
Loland A.D.,University of Bergen |
Brevik O.J.,University of Bergen |
Ilardi P.,Veterquimica |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology
Aims: To aim of the study was to describe the genetic relationship between isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum with a main emphasis of samples from Chile and Norway. The isolates have been obtained from farmed salmonids in Norway and Chile, and from wild salmonids in Norway, but isolates from North America and European countries are also included in the analysis. Methods and Results: The study is based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and seven housekeeping genes (HG), gyrB, atpA, dnaK, trpB, fumC, murG and tuf, and the use of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) system, based on nucleotide polymorphism in the HG, as an alternative to the phylogenies. The variation within the selected genes was limited, and the phylogenetic analysis gave little resolution between the isolates. The MLST gave a much better resolution resulting in 53 sequence types where the same sequences types could be found in Chile, North America and European countries, and in different host species. Conclusions: Multilocus sequence typing give a relatively good separation of different isolates of Fl. psychrophilum and show that there are no distinct geographical or host-specific isolates in the studied material from Chile, North America and Europe. Nor was it possible to separate between isolates from ulcers and systemic infections vs isolates from the surface of healthy salmonids. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study shows a wide geographical distribution of Fl. psychrophilum, indicating that the bacterium has a large potential for transmission over long distances, and between different salmonid hosts species. This knowledge will be important for future management of salmonids diseases connected to Fl. psychrophilum. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology. Source