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Veeraselvam M.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Veeraselvam M.,Veterinary University Training and Research Center | Sridhar R.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Sridhar R.,Madras Veterinary College | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

Effects of environmental enrichment on behavioural changes were studied in five captive sloth bears kept in confined enclosure at Zoological Park, Chennai, India. Behavioural categories like active, passive, and abnormal behaviours were taken for the study. The activity budget was recorded as a single animal scan. The detailed baseline data of 150 hours, over a period of 30 days, were collected. At baseline, bears exhibited passive and more abnormal behaviours. Similarly, after application of the environmental tools like honey-log, underground food pipes, and wobbling box in the enclosure, the data were collected for 150 hours (30 days). Increased active behaviours and decreased abnormal behaviours were observed and showed highly significant changes in the abnormal behaviour as a whole when compared to the baseline level. During the postenrichment period, the data that were collected for 150 hours (30 days) showed no significant differences statistically between the behavioural categories. But certain level of difference was evident from the percentage of abnormal behaviours exhibited by individual bears. Among the enrichment devices, honey-log was the most preferred enrichment tool as revealed by the percentage of time spent by individual animal. The results show that application of enrichment tool continuously may bring long term effect in stereotypic behaviour. © 2013 M. Veeraselvam et al. Source


Giriprasad R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sharma B.D.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Kandeepan G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Mishra B.P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Yasothai R.,Veterinary University Training and Research Center
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2015

This study was conducted to evaluate the shelf life of functional restructured buffalo meat steaks (FRBMS) fortified with mousambi peel powder (MPP) and amla powder (AP) separately, at refrigerated storage (4±1°C). MPP (1:5 hydration, w/w) at 0.5% level and AP (1:5 hydration, w/w) at 0.5% level were incorporated by replacing the lean meat in pre-standardized formulation. Storage quality with respect to physico-chemical [pH and Thiobarbituric Acid Reacting Substances (TBARS) value], microbiological [Psychrophilic count (PC), Total plate count (TPC) and coliform count] and sensory properties of control and treatment products were studied. The products were aerobically packaged in low density polyethylene (LDPE) pouches and analysed at regular interval of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days during refrigerated storage (4±1°C). The storage period did not bring about any significant change in pH of the products up to 10 days of storage, but afterwards a significant increase (P<0.05) was noticed. The TBARS values, redness, yellowness, hue value, chroma value, PC, TPC and coli form showed linear increasing trend from 0 to 20th day of refrigerated storage in treatment products as well as control. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts did not exceed log10 5.24 cfu/g and 3.46 cfu/g, log10 4.46 cfu/g and 3.30 cfu/g, log10 4.19 cfu/g and 3.27 cfu/g for control, MPP and AP treated FRBMS, respectively. The sensory scores of treatment and control samples for appearance, flavour, binding, texture, juiciness and overall acceptability showed progressive declines with increase in storage period but the scores were rated above good. Both the control and treated products retained good to very good acceptability scores throughout the storage period. These observations indicated that the product can be stored in aerobically packaged LDPE pouches for 20 days without much change in physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory properties at refrigerated storage. Source


Sarath T.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Singh S.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Arunmozhi N.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Arunmozhi N.,Madras Veterinary College | And 6 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016

The experiment was conducted to study ovarian follicular population, its diameter, steroid profile (estradiol 17b and progesterone) and corpus luteum development during estrous cycle and seasonal anestrous in Murrah buffaloes. They were categorized into 2 groups based on the estrus signs i.e. cyclic (6) and anestrous (6) and subjected to ultrasound scanning of ovaries on day 0 (day of estrus in cyclic and day of first scanning in anestrous buffaloes), 6, 10 and 16 using B-mode scanner equipped with 6.0 MHz linear array transducer. Blood samples were collected on the above days for the estimation of the progesterone and estradiol-17b. The mean number of small follicles on day 0 and 10 and medium follicles on day 10 were significantly higher within as well as between the cyclic and anestrous buffaloes, while mean number of large follicles on day 0, 10 and 16 were significantly higher in the cyclic as compared to anestrous buffaloes. However, mean number of total follicles were significantly higher in cyclic as compared to anestrous buffaloes on all the days of scanning. The maximum diameter of large follicle was observed in cyclic buffaloes on day 0 (1.40±0.49 cm). The diameter of CL increased with its development and reached to its peak on day 10 (1.39±0.04 cm), thereafter, it reduced on day 16 (0.72±0.30 cm) of the cycle. The mean serum progesterone concentration was significantly higher on day 6, 10 and 16 than day 0 of the estrous cycle indicating development of functional corpus luteum, however, mean serum estradiol-17b concentration was significantly higher on day 0 than the other days of cycle signifying follicular growth and development secreting higher amount of estrogen. Source


Pandiyan C.,Veterinary College and Research Institute | Annal Villi R.,Veterinary University Training and Research Center | Kumaresan G.,Veterinary College and Research Institute | Murugan B.,Livestock Research Station | Rajarajan G.,Veterinary University Training and Research Center
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2012

A study was carried out to prepare synbiotic ice cream incorporating Lactobacillus acidophilus and inulin and viability of L.acidophilus was analyzed on storage. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was incorporated in the ice cream mix to improve the textural and nutritional quality of ice cream. A faster melting rate was noticed in the probiotic and synbiotic ice cream samples. Incorporation of inulin in ice cream mix significantly (P<0.01) improved the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Freezing of the ice cream mix caused a reduction of 0.61 to 0.77 log counts of L. acidophilus count. A significant reduction (P<0.01) in the count of L. acidophilus was observed during storage. It is concluded that incorporation of inulin increases count of L. acidophilus and the organism could survive at therapeutic minimum probiotic level of 106 cells /ml for 15 days of storage at -18 to -23°C in ice cream. © All Rights Reserved. Source

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