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Ioannidou M.D.,Veterinary Research Institute of Thessaloniki | Samouris G.,Veterinary Research Institute of Thessaloniki | Achilias D.S.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry

Acetaldehyde is a naturally found chemical in food substances characterized by a fruity aroma at low levels. However, high levels of acetaldehyde can add to or change the taste of foods and beverages. More importantly, acetaldehyde has recently been found to be possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). In this investigation, the amounts of acetaldehyde in several alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages consumed in Greece, including red or white wine, retsina, tsipouro, grappa, fruit-based liqueurs, beers with different alcohol content as well as mineral water, soft drinks, and fruit juices were measured. The analytical method used is based on derivatization of acetaldehyde with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and its subsequent measurement using high performance liquid chromatography. High concentrations (median, min–max) were detected in grappa (29.4, 29.2–52.7 mg L−1) and tsipouro (17.1, 0.8–55.6 mg L−1), followed by beer (6.8, 6.7–6.9 mg L−1) and red wine (3.7, 1.6–29.4 mg L−1); the lowest levels were detected in soft drinks (0.067, 0.033–0.075 mg L−1) and mineral water (0.04, 0.002--0.096 mg L−1). Levels of acetaldehyde in retsina were very high (68.1, 63.9--68.3 mg L−1) when after opening, the wine remained in plastic bottles for a long time, much higher than in samples taken from just opened bottles (7.2, 7.1–7.4 mg L−1). The amount of acetaldehyde shows some positive correlation to the alcoholic content. These results suggest that regulatory measures and consumer guidance may be necessary for acetaldehyde in beverages. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Source

Kasapidou E.,Western Institute of Technology | Papadaki C.,Western Institute of Technology | Mitlianga P.,Western Institute of Technology | Sossidou E.,Veterinary Research Institute of Thessaloniki
Archiv fur Geflugelkunde

Family produced poultry meat and eggs constitute an important part of the total consumption of poultry products in the rural areas of Greece. The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the nutritional value of layer chicken meat and eggs produced under the family production system, in relation to the current dietary guidelines values for healthy fat consumption. End of lay hen carcasses and table eggs were collected from 7 family farms that kept birds in their backyards. Muscle chemical composition was determined only on skinless breast and thigh samples whereas cholesterol content was determined in both muscle and egg samples. The average fat content (g/100 g sample) was 0.8 and 3.7 in breast and thigh muscle samples, respectively, and it was similar to the values reported in the literature. The cholesterol content (mg/100 g sample) was 92.5 in breast tissue and 126.5 in thigh muscle, and it was significantly higher to the values reported in the literature. The average egg yolk cholesterol content was 237 mg, and it was slightly elevated in comparison to the literature reported values. Contribution of hen meat to fat intake is very low in relation to the reference fat intake (70 g/2000 kcal/day/adult; European Food Safety Authority), whereas, both hen meat and eggs have a significant contribution the recommended cholesterol intake (300 mg/day). Current evidence is insufficient, and a greater number of samples is needed to provide a comprehensive picture of the nutritional quality of meat and eggs produced under the family production system. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. Source

Malama E.,Veterinary Research Institute of Thessaloniki | Hoffmann-Kohler P.,Free University of Berlin | Biedermann I.,Free University of Berlin | Biedermann I.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute | And 7 more authors.
Parasitology Research

Teladorsagia circumcincta is among the most important gastrointestinal parasites in small ruminants and the predominant species in Southern European goats. Parasite control is largely based on metaphylactic/preventative treatments, which is often seen as non-sustainable anymore. The reasons are increased consumer demand to reduce chemicals in livestock production and anthelmintic resistance against the common drugs. This study aimed at the development of a T. circumcincta-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specifically for goats. Samples were obtained from goats raised parasite-free or infected experimentally. Sampling continued during the following pasture season and housing period. The sensitivity for the use in bulk milk samples as an indicator of T. circumcincta infection levels in grazing goats was examined. The ELISA enables clear differentiation of negative and positive animals. With a specificity of 100 % negative cut-off values for serum and milk were 0.294 and 0.228 (sensitivity, 95 %). Positive cut-off values (sensitivity, 90 %) were 0.606 (serum) and 0.419 (milk), while a sensitivity of 95 % resulted in 0.509 and 0.363, respectively. The grey-zone between negative/positive cut-offs was introduced to deal with animals in pre-patency and decreasing antibody levels after infection. There was no cross reactivity for Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Cooperia oncophora while for Haemonchus contortus and Fasciola hepatica it cannot be fully excluded currently. In bulk milk samples, 5 % of the milk had to be contributed from animals infected with T. circumcincta to be detected as positive. The results derived from experimentally and naturally infected as well as parasite naïve animals indicate the potential of the ELISA to be used in targeted anthelmintic treatment regimes in goats. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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