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Wu F.-T.,Research and Diagnostic Center | Wu F.-T.,Epidemiology Intelligence Center | Banyai K.,Veterinary Medical Research Institute | Lin J.-S.,Changhua Christian Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2012

Rotavirus G3P[3] strains have been reported from a variety of species including humans, cats, dogs, monkeys, goats, and cows. Here, we report the characterization of the first human G3P[3] rotavirus from East Asia identified in a 2-year-old child who was treated in a hospital's emergency ward in Taiwan in February 2005. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close genetic relationship between the VP4, VP6, VP7, and NSP4 genes of Taiwanese G3P[3] strain 04-94s51 and an Italian canine strain isolated a decade ago, suggesting a canine origin for the Taiwanese strain. In contrast, the Taiwanese strain was only moderately related to well-characterized canine-origin human G3P[3] strains Ro1845 and HCR3, suggesting a distinct origin for the rotavirus strain from Taiwan. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Iturriza-Gomara M.,Center for Infections | Dallman T.,Bioinformatics Unit Statistics | Banyai K.,Veterinary Medical Research Institute | Bottiger B.,Statens Serum Institute | And 28 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2011

EuroRotaNet, a laboratory network, was established in order to determine the diversity of co-circulating rotavirus strains in Europe over three or more rotavirus seasons from 2006/2007 and currently includes 16 countries. This report highlights the tremendous diversity of rotavirus strains co-circulating in the European population during three years of surveillance since 2006/2007 and points to the possible origins of these strains including genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Furthermore, the ability of the network to identify strains circulating with an incidence of ≥1% allowed the identification of possible emerging strains such as G8 and G12 since the beginning of the study; analysis of recent data indicates their increased incidence. The introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination in at least two of the participating countries, and partial vaccine coverage in some others may provide data on diversity driven by vaccine introduction and possible strain replacement in Europe. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010.


Egyed L.,Veterinary Medical Research Institute | Elo P.,Veterinary Medical Research Institute | Sreter-Lancz Z.,Laboratory of Microbiology | Szell Z.,Laboratory of Parasitology | And 2 more authors.
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases | Year: 2012

Ixodes ricinus is the most important tick species in Europe as it is most widely distributed and transmits the majority of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. As limited data are available for Hungary, the aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal timing of questing by . I. ricinus and the infection rate of this tick species with all major tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. Monthly collections of . I. ricinus were carried out over 3 consecutive years by dragging a blanket in 6 biotopes representing different areas of Hungary. Altogether, 1800 nymphs (300 per collection point) were screened as pooled samples (each of 5 specimens) by PCR-based methods for tick-borne pathogens. . I. ricinus larvae, nymphs, and adults had bimodal activity patterns with a major peak in the spring. As newly moulted ticks of all stages are thought to emerge in the autumn of each year, it appears that most newly emerged ticks delayed their questing until the following spring. The minimum prevalence of . Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 2.5%. . Borr. afzelii, . Borr. burgdorferi sensu stricto, . Borr. garinii, . Borr. lusitaniae, and . Borr. valaisiana were identified by hybridization. The minimum infection rate with spotted fever group rickettsiae was 1.9%. . Rickettsia helvetica was identified in all biotopes. The minimum prevalence of . Anaplasma phagocytophilum, . Babesia divergens and . Bab. microti was low (0.3-0.5%). . Bartonella spp.-, . Francisella tularensis-, and TBE virus-specific amplification products were not detected. Relative to the results of comparable studies carried out in the Carpathian Basin, the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens was low in Hungary. This might be attributed to the climatic difference between the lowland areas of Hungary and submountain areas of the surrounding countries involved in the studies. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.


Wu F.-T.,Center for Research and Diagnostics | Wu F.-T.,National Yang Ming University | Banyai K.,Veterinary Medical Research Institute | Huang J.C.,National Yang Ming University | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2011

Genotype P[25] rotaviruses are rare and to date have been reported to occur only in a few countries of mainland Asia. Here we report the molecular characterization of a novel human rotavirus genotype combination, G3P[25], detected in a 17-month-old child hospitalized due to severe gastroenteritis during 2009 in central Taiwan. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the VP4 gene demonstrated a distinct origin from other strains bearing the P[25] VP4 gene, whereas the VP7, VP6 and NSP4 gene phylogenies identified common origins with cognate genes of other, presumed human-porcine reassortment Taiwanese strains. These results suggest that interactions between human and animal strains appear to contribute to the generation of genetic and antigenic diversity of rotavirus strains, with potential public health importance in Taiwan. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


Wu F.-T.,Research and Diagnostic Center | Wu F.-T.,National Yang Ming University | Banyai K.,Veterinary Medical Research Institute | Huang J.C.,National Yang Ming University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2011

We previously reported the detection of genotype P[19] rotavirus strains from children hospitalized with acute dehydrating diarrhea during a 5-year surveillance period in Taiwan. The characterization of five P[19] strains (0.4% of all typed), including three G3P[19], a novel G5P[19], and a unique G9P[19] genotype is described in this study. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP4, VP7, VP6, and NSP4 genes was performed, which demonstrated novel lineages for respective genotypes of the VP4 and the VP7 genes. The sequence similarities of the P[19] VP4 gene among Taiwanese human strains was higher (nt, 91.5-96.2%; aa, 93.7-97.6%) than to other P[19] strains (nt, 83.5-86.6%; aa, 89.4-94.1%) from different regions of the world. The VP7 gene of the three G3P[19] Taiwanese strains shared up to 93.4% nt and 97.5% aa identity to each other but had lower similarity to reference strain sequences available in GenBank (nt, <90.1%; aa, <95.6%). Similarly, the VP7 gene of the novel G5P[19] strain was only moderately related to the VP7 gene of reference G5 strains (nt, 82.2-87.3%; aa, 87.0-93.1%), while the VP7 gene of the single G9P[19] strain was genetically distinct from other known human and animal G9 rotavirus strains (nt, ≤92.0%; aa, ≤95.7%). Together, these findings suggest that the Taiwanese P[19] strains originated by independent interspecies transmission events. Synchronized surveillance of human and animal rotaviruses in Taiwan should identify possible hosts of these uncommon human rotavirus strains. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Banyai K.,Veterinary Medical Research Institute | Mijatovic-Rustempasic S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Hull J.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Esona M.D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2011

The segmented genome of rotaviruses provides an opportunity for rotavirus strains to generate a large genetic diversity through reassortment; however, this mechanism is considered to play little role in the generation of mosaic gene constellations between Wa-like and DS-1-like strains in genes other than the neutralization antigens. A pilot study was undertaken to analyze these two epidemiologically important strains at the genomic level in order to (i) identify intergenogroup reassortment and (ii) to make available additional reference genome sequences of G1P[8] and G2P[4] for future genomics analyses. The full or nearly complete coding region of all 11 genes for 3 G1P[8] (LB2719, LB2758, and LB2771) and 3 G2P[4] (LB2744, LB2764, and LB2772) strains isolated from children hospitalized with severe diarrhea in Long Beach, California, where these strains were circulating at comparable rates during 2005-2006 are described in this study. Based on the full-genome classification system, all G1P[8] strains had a conserved genomic constellation: G1-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-E1-H1 and were mostly identical to the few Wa-like strains whose genome sequences have already been determined. Similarly, the genome sequences of the 3 G2P[4] strains were highly conserved: G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-E2-H2 and displayed an overall lesser genetic divergence with reference DS-1-like strains. While intergenogroup reassortment was not seen between the G1P[8] and G2P[4] strains studied here, evidence for intragenogroup reassortment events was identified. Similar studies in the post-rotavirus genomic era will help uncover whether intergenogroup reassortment affecting the backbone genes could play a significant role in any potential vaccine breakthrough events by evading immunity of vaccinated children. J. Med. Virol. 83:532-539, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Ahn M.,Veterinary Medical Research Institute | Moon C.,Chonnam National University | Jeong C.,Veterinary Medical Research Institute | Matsumoto Y.,Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience | And 2 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2010

The glycoprotein erythropoietin (EPO) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in erythropoiesis. Recent data have suggested that EPO and EPO receptors are expressed in the central nervous system, where EPO exerts neuroprotective effects. However, peripheral nervous system (PNS) EPO and EPO receptor expression has not been widely studied. EPO and EPO receptor expression was examined in the PNS in an experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) rat model in the present study to elucidate EPO/EPO-receptor binding pathway involvement in injured PNS tissue. Western blot analysis demonstrated that EPO was significantly increased in the PNS at the paralytic stage on day 14 post-immunization (PI); levels were significantly decreased at day 30 PI. EPO was identified in PNS-derived vascular endothelial cells, Schwann cells, and axons in normal control rats. Most inflammatory cells in EAN lesions were EPO immunopositive at day 14 PI. In addition, the intensity of EPO immunoreactivity in both Schwann and vascular endothelial cells was greater than that of normal controls at this stage; intensity declined at day 30 PI. These findings suggest that EPO is transiently upregulated in EAN lesions and that the EPO/EPO-receptor binding pathway is associated with neuroprotection in EAN-affected PNS tissues. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


de Grazia S.,University of Palermo | Giammanco G.M.,University of Palermo | Potgieter C.A.,Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute | Matthijnssens J.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | And 4 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Using full-length genome sequence analysis, we investigated 2 rare G3P[9] human rotavirus strains isolated from children with diarrhea. The genomes were recognized as assortments of genes closely related to rotaviruses originating from cats, ruminants, and humans. Results suggest multiple transmissions of genes from animal to human strains of rotaviruses.


PubMed | Veterinary Medical Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ticks and tick-borne diseases | Year: 2012

Ixodes ricinus is the most important tick species in Europe as it is most widely distributed and transmits the majority of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. As limited data are available for Hungary, the aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal timing of questing by I. ricinus and the infection rate of this tick species with all major tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. Monthly collections of I. ricinus were carried out over 3 consecutive years by dragging a blanket in 6 biotopes representing different areas of Hungary. Altogether, 1800 nymphs (300 per collection point) were screened as pooled samples (each of 5 specimens) by PCR-based methods for tick-borne pathogens. I. ricinus larvae, nymphs, and adults had bimodal activity patterns with a major peak in the spring. As newly moulted ticks of all stages are thought to emerge in the autumn of each year, it appears that most newly emerged ticks delayed their questing until the following spring. The minimum prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 2.5%. Borr. afzelii, Borr. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borr. garinii, Borr. lusitaniae, and Borr. valaisiana were identified by hybridization. The minimum infection rate with spotted fever group rickettsiae was 1.9%. Rickettsia helvetica was identified in all biotopes. The minimum prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia divergens and Bab. microti was low (0.3-0.5%). Bartonella spp.-, Francisella tularensis-, and TBE virus-specific amplification products were not detected. Relative to the results of comparable studies carried out in the Carpathian Basin, the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens was low in Hungary. This might be attributed to the climatic difference between the lowland areas of Hungary and submountain areas of the surrounding countries involved in the studies.


The segmented genome of rotaviruses provides an opportunity for rotavirus strains to generate a large genetic diversity through reassortment; however, this mechanism is considered to play little role in the generation of mosaic gene constellations between Wa-like and DS-1-like strains in genes other than the neutralization antigens. A pilot study was undertaken to analyze these two epidemiologically important strains at the genomic level in order to (i) identify intergenogroup reassortment and (ii) to make available additional reference genome sequences of G1P[8] and G2P[4] for future genomics analyses. The full or nearly complete coding region of all 11 genes for 3 G1P[8] (LB2719, LB2758, and LB2771) and 3 G2P[4] (LB2744, LB2764, and LB2772) strains isolated from children hospitalized with severe diarrhea in Long Beach, California, where these strains were circulating at comparable rates during 2005-2006 are described in this study. Based on the full-genome classification system, all G1P[8] strains had a conserved genomic constellation: G1-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-E1-H1 and were mostly identical to the few Wa-like strains whose genome sequences have already been determined. Similarly, the genome sequences of the 3 G2P[4] strains were highly conserved: G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-E2-H2 and displayed an overall lesser genetic divergence with reference DS-1-like strains. While intergenogroup reassortment was not seen between the G1P[8] and G2P[4] strains studied here, evidence for intragenogroup reassortment events was identified. Similar studies in the post-rotavirus genomic era will help uncover whether intergenogroup reassortment affecting the backbone genes could play a significant role in any potential vaccine breakthrough events by evading immunity of vaccinated children.

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