Veterinary Public Health Institute

Bern, Switzerland

Veterinary Public Health Institute

Bern, Switzerland

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PubMed | The National Veterinary Institute, University of Caen Lower Normandy, French National Institute for Agricultural Research and Veterinary Public Health Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

In this work we propose the adoption of a statistical framework used in the evaluation of forensic evidence as a tool for evaluating and presenting circumstantial evidence of a disease outbreak from syndromic surveillance. The basic idea is to exploit the predicted distributions of reported cases to calculate the ratio of the likelihood of observing n cases given an ongoing outbreak over the likelihood of observing n cases given no outbreak. The likelihood ratio defines the Value of Evidence (V). Using Bayes rule, the prior odds for an ongoing outbreak are multiplied by V to obtain the posterior odds. This approach was applied to time series on the number of horses showing clinical respiratory symptoms or neurological symptoms. The separation between prior beliefs about the probability of an outbreak and the strength of evidence from syndromic surveillance offers a transparent reasoning process suitable for supporting decision makers. The value of evidence can be translated into a verbal statement, as often done in forensics or used for the production of risk maps. Furthermore, a Bayesian approach offers seamless integration of data from syndromic surveillance with results from predictive modeling and with information from other sources such as disease introduction risk assessments.


PubMed | International Society for Disease Surveillance, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, French National Institute for Agricultural Research, Veterinary Public Health Institute and National Veterinary Institute SVA
Type: | Journal: Infection ecology & epidemiology | Year: 2014

Motivated by the perception that human and veterinary medicines can cooperate in more ways than just fighting zoonoses, the authors organized a roundtable during the 2013 annual meeting of the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS). Collaborations between human and animal health sectors were reported to often rise in response to zoonotic outbreaks (during crisis time) and be mainly based on personal networks. Ways to maintain and strengthen these links were discussed.


VIAL F.,Veterinary Public Health Institute | THOMMEN S.,University of Zürich | HELD L.,University of Zürich
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Syndromic surveillance (SyS) systems currently exploit various sources of health-related data, most of which are collected for purposes other than surveillance (e.g. economic). Several European SyS systems use data collected during meat inspection for syndromic surveillance of animal health, as some diseases may be more easily detected post-mortem than at their point of origin or during the ante-mortem inspection upon arrival at the slaughterhouse. In this paper we use simulation to evaluate the performance of a quasi-Poisson regression (also known as an improved Farrington) algorithm for the detection of disease outbreaks during post-mortem inspection of slaughtered animals. When parameterizing the algorithm based on the retrospective analyses of 6 years of historic data, the probability of detection was satisfactory for large (range 83–445 cases) outbreaks but poor for small (range 20–177 cases) outbreaks. Varying the amount of historical data used to fit the algorithm can help increasing the probability of detection for small outbreaks. However, while the use of a 0·975 quantile generated a low false-positive rate, in most cases, more than 50% of outbreak cases had already occurred at the time of detection. High variance observed in the whole carcass condemnations time-series, and lack of flexibility in terms of the temporal distribution of simulated outbreaks resulting from low reporting frequency (monthly), constitute major challenges for early detection of outbreaks in the livestock population based on meat inspection data. Reporting frequency should be increased in the future to improve timeliness of the SyS system while increased sensitivity may be achieved by integrating meat inspection data into a multivariate system simultaneously evaluating multiple sources of data on livestock health. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015


Hasler B.,Lane College | Howe K.S.,University of Exeter | Presi P.,Veterinary Public Health Institute | Stark K.D.C.,Lane College
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

Economic analyses are indispensable as sources of information to help policy makers make decisions about mitigation resource use. The aim of this study was to conduct an economic evaluation of the Swiss national mitigation programme for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), which was implemented in 2008 and concludes in 2017.The eradication phase of the mitigation programme comprised testing and slaughtering of all persistently infected (PI) animals found. First, the whole population was antigen tested and all PI cattle removed. Since October 2008, all newborn calves have been subject to antigen testing to identify and slaughter PI calves. All mothers of PI calves were retested and slaughtered if the test was positive. Antigen testing in calves and elimination of virus-carriers was envisaged to be conducted until the end of 2011. Subsequently, a surveillance programme will document disease freedom or detect disease if it recurs. Four alternative surveillance strategies based on antibody testing in blood from newborn calves and/or milk from primiparous cows were proposed by Federal Veterinary Office servants in charge of the BVDV mitigation programme.A simple economic spreadsheet model was developed to estimate and compare the costs and benefits of the BVDV mitigation programme. In an independent project, the impact of the mitigation programme on the disease dynamics in the population was simulated using a stochastic compartment model. Mitigation costs accrued from materials, labour, and processes such as handling and testing samples, and recording results. Benefits were disease costs avoided by having the mitigation programme in place compared to a baseline of endemic disease equilibrium. Cumulative eradication costs and benefits were estimated to determine the break-even point for the eradication component of the programme. The margin over eradication cost therefore equalled the maximum expenditure potentially available for surveillance without the net benefit from the mitigation programme overall becoming zero. Costs of the four surveillance strategies and the net benefit of the mitigation programme were estimated. Simulations were run for the years 2008-2017 with 20,000 iterations in @Risk for Excel.The mean baseline disease costs were estimated to be 16.04. m CHF (1 Swiss Franc, CHF. =. 0.73 € at the time of analysis) (90% central range, CR: 14.71-17.39. m CHF) in 2008 and 14.89. m CHF (90% CR: 13.72-16.08. m CHF) in 2009. The break-even point was estimated to be reached in 2012 and the margin over eradication cost 63.15. m CHF (90% CR: 53.72-72.82. m CHF). The discounted cost for each surveillance strategy was found to be smaller than the margin, so the mitigation programme overall is expected to have a positive net economic benefit irrespective of the strategy adopted. For economic efficiency, the least cost surveillance alternative must be selected. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Vial F.,Veterinary Public Health Institute | Reist M.,Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office
Meat Science | Year: 2015

We obtained partial carcass condemnation (PCC) data for cattle (2009-2010) from a Swiss slaughterhouse. Data on whole carcass condemnations (WCC) carried out at the same slaughterhouse over those years were extracted from the national database for meat inspection. We found that given the differences observed in the WCC and PCC time series, it is likely that both indicators respond to different health events in the population and that one cannot be substituted by the other. Because PCC recordings are promising for syndromic surveillance, the meat inspection database should be capable to record both WCC and PCC data in the future. However, a standardised list of reasons for PCC needs to be defined and used nationwide in all slaughterhouses. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Mihaiu L.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Lapusan A.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Tanasuica R.,Veterinary Public Health Institute | Sobolu R.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2014

Introduction: The increasing antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates is of major public health concern, but information regarding these aspects is still lacking in Romania. This study focused on a detailed and accurate investigation concerning prevalence, serotypes, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella strains, isolated from pork and chicken meat, collected from all regions of Romania in 2011. Methodology: The research was conducted on 650 samples of chicken and pork meat collected from production units and retail markets located in various regions of Romania. A total of 149 Salmonella isolates were recovered (22.92%), serotyped, confirmed by PCR, and further tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Thirteen Salmonella serovars were identified; predominant serovars included Infantis, Typhimurium, Derby and Colindale. Multiple resistance was found in 83.22% (n = 124) of the isolates. The isolates were frequently resistant to tetracycline (80.53%), streptomycin (81.21%), sulfamethoxazole (87.25%), nalidixic acid (65.10%), and ciprofloxacin (42.95%). Additionally, a markedly lower resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (20.81%), chloramphenicol (16.78%), and ceftazidime (11.41%). Among 137 resistant Salmonella isolates, 35 different resistance patterns were found. Conclusion: A high prevalence of Salmonella spp. and a relatively high resistance rate to multiple antimicrobials was found. This data indicates that chicken and pork meat could constitute a source of human exposure to multidrug-resistant Salmonella and therefore could be considered a potential vehicle of resistant Salmonella foodborne diseases. Further actions are needed to succesfully implement a national surveillance program for better monitoring of these resistant pathogens. © 2014 Mihaiu et al.


PubMed | University of Zürich and Veterinary Public Health Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Epidemiology and infection | Year: 2015

Syndromic surveillance (SyS) systems currently exploit various sources of health-related data, most of which are collected for purposes other than surveillance (e.g. economic). Several European SyS systems use data collected during meat inspection for syndromic surveillance of animal health, as some diseases may be more easily detected post-mortem than at their point of origin or during the ante-mortem inspection upon arrival at the slaughterhouse. In this paper we use simulation to evaluate the performance of a quasi-Poisson regression (also known as an improved Farrington) algorithm for the detection of disease outbreaks during post-mortem inspection of slaughtered animals. When parameterizing the algorithm based on the retrospective analyses of 6 years of historic data, the probability of detection was satisfactory for large (range 83-445 cases) outbreaks but poor for small (range 20-177 cases) outbreaks. Varying the amount of historical data used to fit the algorithm can help increasing the probability of detection for small outbreaks. However, while the use of a 0975 quantile generated a low false-positive rate, in most cases, more than 50% of outbreak cases had already occurred at the time of detection. High variance observed in the whole carcass condemnations time-series, and lack of flexibility in terms of the temporal distribution of simulated outbreaks resulting from low reporting frequency (monthly), constitute major challenges for early detection of outbreaks in the livestock population based on meat inspection data. Reporting frequency should be increased in the future to improve timeliness of the SyS system while increased sensitivity may be achieved by integrating meat inspection data into a multivariate system simultaneously evaluating multiple sources of data on livestock health.


PubMed | Kalberpraxis, Veterinary Public Health Institute and Zoetis GmbH
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde | Year: 2016

The objective of this field study was to describe the impact of the entry age and intensive veterinary care on mortality and antimicrobial use of veal calves in Switzerland. From July until October 2012, a total of 316 young calves (aged 10.8 days) and from November 2012 until May 2013 a total of 425 market calves (aged 39.5 days) were housed on a welcome-farm, where they obtained daily veterinary care during the first 6 weeks of the production cycle. As a 3rd category 2 groups of 34 and 31 old calves (aged 61.5 days), respectively, were housed on a commercial farm. From entry to slaughter the daily doses of antibiotics on group level averaged 35.6 in young calves, 26.2 in commercial calves, and 21.0 in old calves. On the welcome-farm 45.9% and 48.5% of the young and market calves, respectively, were individually treated, and in the finishing period of the production cycle 10.4% and 3.3% of the young and market calves, respectively. Of the old calves 16.9% were individually treated. Mortality was 6.7% in young calves, 8.2% in commercial calves, and 4.6% in old calves. Intensive veterinary care guaranteed early recognition of disease and euthanasia of terminally morbid calves. The different entry ages did not lead to any reduction in mortality or in antimicrobial use compared to previous studies.


PubMed | Kalberpraxis, Veterinary Public Health Institute and Zoetis GmbH
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde | Year: 2016

The objective of this field study was to investigate the impact of the entry age and of veterinary care on blood values, performance and carcass quality of veal calves in Switzerland. From July 2012 until May 2013 a total of 316 young calves (aged 10.8 days), 425 market calves (aged 39.5 days), and 65 old calves (aged 61.5 days) were observed during the production cycle. As control calves 9019 veal calves fattened at the same time as the market calves were available. At time of entry the average hemoglobin value of 88.2 g/l in market calves was significantly (p < 0.001) lower than in young (96.2 g/l), old (95.0 g/l) and control calves (95.0 g/l). At time of slaughter the hemoglobin of control calves was 101.2 g/l and significantly (p < 0.001) lower than in young (129.6 g/l) and market calves (131.6 g/l). The average daily weight gain reached 1.21 kg in young calves, 1.28 kg in market calves, 1.29 kg in old calves and 1.30 kg in control calves. The premature slaughter rate was 3.4% in control calves, 8.1% young (p < 0.001), 3.4% in commercial and 0% in old calves (p = 0.17). The percentage of the favorite carcass quality was 53.8% in control calves and differed significantly (p < 0.001) from young (43.5%) and market calves (42.8%), but not from old calves (50.8%, p = 0.9). The carcass color with the average photometric L-value of 41.5 in young and 41.6 in market calves differed significantly (p < 0.001) from old (44.4) and control calves (45.4). The intensive veterinary care and the different entry ages had no positive effect on performance and carcass quality. The iron supply resulted in increased hemoglobin values and in reddish carcass color in more than 50% of the investigated calves.


PubMed | Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office and Veterinary Public Health Institute
Type: | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2014

We obtained partial carcass condemnation (PCC) data for cattle (2009-2010) from a Swiss slaughterhouse. Data on whole carcass condemnations (WCC) carried out at the same slaughterhouse over those years were extracted from the national database for meat inspection. We found that given the differences observed in the WCC and PCC time series, it is likely that both indicators respond to different health events in the population and that one cannot be substituted by the other. Because PCC recordings are promising for syndromic surveillance, the meat inspection database should be capable to record both WCC and PCC data in the future. However, a standardised list of reasons for PCC needs to be defined and used nationwide in all slaughterhouses.

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