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VIAL F.,Veterinary Public Health Institute | THOMMEN S.,University of Zurich | HELD L.,University of Zurich
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Syndromic surveillance (SyS) systems currently exploit various sources of health-related data, most of which are collected for purposes other than surveillance (e.g. economic). Several European SyS systems use data collected during meat inspection for syndromic surveillance of animal health, as some diseases may be more easily detected post-mortem than at their point of origin or during the ante-mortem inspection upon arrival at the slaughterhouse. In this paper we use simulation to evaluate the performance of a quasi-Poisson regression (also known as an improved Farrington) algorithm for the detection of disease outbreaks during post-mortem inspection of slaughtered animals. When parameterizing the algorithm based on the retrospective analyses of 6 years of historic data, the probability of detection was satisfactory for large (range 83–445 cases) outbreaks but poor for small (range 20–177 cases) outbreaks. Varying the amount of historical data used to fit the algorithm can help increasing the probability of detection for small outbreaks. However, while the use of a 0·975 quantile generated a low false-positive rate, in most cases, more than 50% of outbreak cases had already occurred at the time of detection. High variance observed in the whole carcass condemnations time-series, and lack of flexibility in terms of the temporal distribution of simulated outbreaks resulting from low reporting frequency (monthly), constitute major challenges for early detection of outbreaks in the livestock population based on meat inspection data. Reporting frequency should be increased in the future to improve timeliness of the SyS system while increased sensitivity may be achieved by integrating meat inspection data into a multivariate system simultaneously evaluating multiple sources of data on livestock health. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 Source

Vial F.,Veterinary Public Health Institute | Reist M.,Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office
Meat Science | Year: 2015

We obtained partial carcass condemnation (PCC) data for cattle (2009-2010) from a Swiss slaughterhouse. Data on whole carcass condemnations (WCC) carried out at the same slaughterhouse over those years were extracted from the national database for meat inspection. We found that given the differences observed in the WCC and PCC time series, it is likely that both indicators respond to different health events in the population and that one cannot be substituted by the other. Because PCC recordings are promising for syndromic surveillance, the meat inspection database should be capable to record both WCC and PCC data in the future. However, a standardised list of reasons for PCC needs to be defined and used nationwide in all slaughterhouses. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hasler B.,Lane College | Howe K.S.,University of Exeter | Presi P.,Veterinary Public Health Institute | Stark K.D.C.,Lane College
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

Economic analyses are indispensable as sources of information to help policy makers make decisions about mitigation resource use. The aim of this study was to conduct an economic evaluation of the Swiss national mitigation programme for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), which was implemented in 2008 and concludes in 2017.The eradication phase of the mitigation programme comprised testing and slaughtering of all persistently infected (PI) animals found. First, the whole population was antigen tested and all PI cattle removed. Since October 2008, all newborn calves have been subject to antigen testing to identify and slaughter PI calves. All mothers of PI calves were retested and slaughtered if the test was positive. Antigen testing in calves and elimination of virus-carriers was envisaged to be conducted until the end of 2011. Subsequently, a surveillance programme will document disease freedom or detect disease if it recurs. Four alternative surveillance strategies based on antibody testing in blood from newborn calves and/or milk from primiparous cows were proposed by Federal Veterinary Office servants in charge of the BVDV mitigation programme.A simple economic spreadsheet model was developed to estimate and compare the costs and benefits of the BVDV mitigation programme. In an independent project, the impact of the mitigation programme on the disease dynamics in the population was simulated using a stochastic compartment model. Mitigation costs accrued from materials, labour, and processes such as handling and testing samples, and recording results. Benefits were disease costs avoided by having the mitigation programme in place compared to a baseline of endemic disease equilibrium. Cumulative eradication costs and benefits were estimated to determine the break-even point for the eradication component of the programme. The margin over eradication cost therefore equalled the maximum expenditure potentially available for surveillance without the net benefit from the mitigation programme overall becoming zero. Costs of the four surveillance strategies and the net benefit of the mitigation programme were estimated. Simulations were run for the years 2008-2017 with 20,000 iterations in @Risk for Excel.The mean baseline disease costs were estimated to be 16.04. m CHF (1 Swiss Franc, CHF. =. 0.73 € at the time of analysis) (90% central range, CR: 14.71-17.39. m CHF) in 2008 and 14.89. m CHF (90% CR: 13.72-16.08. m CHF) in 2009. The break-even point was estimated to be reached in 2012 and the margin over eradication cost 63.15. m CHF (90% CR: 53.72-72.82. m CHF). The discounted cost for each surveillance strategy was found to be smaller than the margin, so the mitigation programme overall is expected to have a positive net economic benefit irrespective of the strategy adopted. For economic efficiency, the least cost surveillance alternative must be selected. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hassanzadeh K.,University of Alberta | Reformat M.,University of Alberta | Pedrycz W.,University of Alberta | Jamal I.,AQLMC | Berezowski J.,Veterinary Public Health Institute
Proceedings - 2013 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Joint Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology - Workshops, WI-IATW 2013 | Year: 2013

An important contribution of the Semantic Web is a new format of data representation called Resource Description Framework (RDF). In RDF, every piece of information is represented as a triple: subject-property-object. In general, subjects and objects can be shared between multiple RDF triples, and all triples can constitute a densely interlinked network. RDF becomes a very popular format of representing data on the web. As of September 2012, the last available data, more than 31 billions of triples exist on the web. In the paper, we propose a system - called T2R - for automatic acquisition of syntactic and semantic relations among terms from a plain text. These relations are expressed in the form of RDF triples. The proposed method is independent of any prior knowledge and domain specific patterns, and is applicable to any textual resources. The system implementing the approach is capable of identifying grammatical structure of an input sentence and analysing its semantics to generate meaningful RDF triples. We evaluate this approach by proving the quality of our results through case studies. © 2013 IEEE. Source

Mihaiu L.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Lapusan A.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Tanasuica R.,Veterinary Public Health Institute | Sobolu R.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2014

Introduction: The increasing antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates is of major public health concern, but information regarding these aspects is still lacking in Romania. This study focused on a detailed and accurate investigation concerning prevalence, serotypes, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella strains, isolated from pork and chicken meat, collected from all regions of Romania in 2011. Methodology: The research was conducted on 650 samples of chicken and pork meat collected from production units and retail markets located in various regions of Romania. A total of 149 Salmonella isolates were recovered (22.92%), serotyped, confirmed by PCR, and further tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Thirteen Salmonella serovars were identified; predominant serovars included Infantis, Typhimurium, Derby and Colindale. Multiple resistance was found in 83.22% (n = 124) of the isolates. The isolates were frequently resistant to tetracycline (80.53%), streptomycin (81.21%), sulfamethoxazole (87.25%), nalidixic acid (65.10%), and ciprofloxacin (42.95%). Additionally, a markedly lower resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (20.81%), chloramphenicol (16.78%), and ceftazidime (11.41%). Among 137 resistant Salmonella isolates, 35 different resistance patterns were found. Conclusion: A high prevalence of Salmonella spp. and a relatively high resistance rate to multiple antimicrobials was found. This data indicates that chicken and pork meat could constitute a source of human exposure to multidrug-resistant Salmonella and therefore could be considered a potential vehicle of resistant Salmonella foodborne diseases. Further actions are needed to succesfully implement a national surveillance program for better monitoring of these resistant pathogens. © 2014 Mihaiu et al. Source

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