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PubMed | Sofia University, University of Forestry, Veterinary Practice and University of Bari
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Transboundary and emerging diseases | Year: 2016

Parvoviruses represent the most important infectious agents that are responsible for severe to fatal disease in carnivores. This study reports the results of a 10-year molecular survey conducted on carnivores in Bulgaria (n=344), including 262 dogs and 19 cats with gastroenteritis, and 57 hunted wild carnivores. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), followed by virus characterization by minor groove binder (MGB) probe assays, detected 216 parvovirus positive dogs with a predominance of canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a, 79.17%) over CPV-2b (18.52%) and CPV-2c (2.31%). Rottweilers and German shepherds were the most frequent breeds among CPV-positive pedigree dogs (n=96). Eighteen cats were found to shed parvoviruses in their faeces, with most strains being characterized as FPLV (n=17), although a single specimen tested positive for CPV-2a. Only two wild carnivores were parvovirus positive, a wolf (Canis lupus) and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes), both being infected by CPV-2a strains.


Imirzalioglu C.,Institute of Medical Microbiology | Dahmen H.,Veterinary Practice | Hain T.,Institute of Medical Microbiology | Billion A.,Institute of Medical Microbiology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) in cattle and may be associated with Crohn's disease (CD) in humans. It is the slowest growing of the cultivable mycobacteria, and culture from clinical, veterinary, food, or environmental specimens can take 4 months or even longer. Currently, the insertion element IS900 is used to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA. However, closely related IS900 elements are also present in other mycobacteria, thus limiting its specificity as a target. Here we describe the use of novel primer sets derived from the sequences of two highly specific single copy genes, MAP2765c and MAP0865, for the quantitative detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis within 6 h by using real-time PCR. Specificity of the target was established using 40 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates, 67 different bacterial species, and two intestinal parasites. Using the probes and methods described, we detected 27 (2.09%) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive stool specimens from 1,293 individual stool samples by the use of either IS900 or probes deriving from the MAP2765c and MAP0865 genes described here. In general, bacterial load due to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was uniformly low in these samples and we estimated 500 to 5,000 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria per gram of stool in assay-positive samples. Thus, the methods described here are useful for rapid and specific detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in clinical samples. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Vorimore F.,University Paris Est Creteil | Thebault A.,University Paris Est Creteil | Poisson S.,University Paris Est Creteil | Cleva D.,Veterinary Practice | And 4 more authors.
Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2015

Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen associated primarily with avian chlamydiosis also referred as psittacosis. Human psittacosis can lead to severe cases of respiratory disease. The mule duck is one of the main bird hybrids associated with human cases of psittacosis in France. In order to better understand the epidemiology of avian chlamydiosis, monitoring studies were performed in both breeder flocks and mule duck flocks. Surveys conducted in one professional duck bredding organization revealed little shedding in breeder flocks, whereas heavy but asymptomatic C. psittaci shedding was observed in most of the mule duck flocks, mostly when birds were reared in open range conditions on farms. Human cases of psittacosis linked to duck breeder flocks and their progeny led to detection of heavy shedders in all the suspected flocks despite no birds showing clinical signs. Offspring of one of the infected female flocks was analyzed and also proved to be infected by C. psittaci. Field studies suggest that C. psittaci infections in duck farms involve horizontal and probably vertical transmission but that the environment also plays an important role in maintaining infection on farms. In the light of the widespread occurrence of C. psittaci on duck farms, it has become urgent to clearly identify sources of contamination in order to take appropriate field management measures to minimize worker exposure. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, National Veterinary School, SAS Breheret, Veterinary Practice and University Paris Est Creteil
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied and environmental microbiology | Year: 2016

Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for avian chlamydiosis, otherwise known as psittacosis, a zoonotic disease that may lead to severe atypical pneumonia. This study was conducted on seven mule duck flocks harboring asymptomatic birds to explore the circulation and persistence of C. psittaci during the entire breeding process and assess the potential sources of worker exposure. Cloacal swabs and air samples were taken on each occasion requiring humans to handle the birds. In parallel, environmental samples, including dust, water, and soil, were collected. Specific real-time PCR analyses revealed the presence of C. psittaci in all flocks but with three different shedding patterns involving ducks about the age of 4, 8, and 12 weeks with heavy, moderate, and low excretion levels, respectively. Air samples were only positive in flocks harboring heavy shedders. Dust in flocks with heavy or moderate shedders carried chlamydial loads strongly associated with the loads detected in avian and soil samples. Environmental contamination, significantly correlated with shedding dynamics, was considered to be the most probable source of exposure. The high prevalence of bacteriophage Chp1 in all flocks, mostly jointly present with chlamydia, suggests an important factor in C. psittaci persistence, thus creating a greater risk for humans. A survey conducted in these flocks regarding farming practices and activities showed that disinfection seems to be the most promising practice for reducing C. psittaci prevalence in ducks and that the place and the duration of action during operations seem to be potential risk factors. Strict adherence to good practices is strongly recommended.


Baechlein C.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Baechlein C.,German Center for Infection Research | Fischer N.,University of Hamburg | Fischer N.,German Center for Infection Research | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2015

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) continues to represent one of the most significant threats to human health. In recent years, HCV-related sequences have been found in bats, rodents, horses, and dogs, indicating a widespread distribution of hepaciviruses among animals. By applying unbiased high-throughput sequencing, a novel virus of the genus Hepacivirus was discovered in a bovine serum sample. De novo assembly yielded a nearly full-length genome coding for a polyprotein of 2,779 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the virus represents a novel species within the genus Hepacivirus. Viral RNA screening determined that 1.6% (n = 5) of 320 individual animals and 3.2% (n = 5) of 158 investigated cattle herds in Germany were positive for bovine hepacivirus. Repeated reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses of animals from one dairy herd proved that a substantial percentage of cows were infected, with some of them being viremic for over 6 months. Clinical and postmortem examination revealed no signs of disease, including liver damage. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR from different organs and tissues, together with the presence of an miR-122 binding site in the viral genome, strongly suggests a liver tropism for bovine hepacivirus, making this novel virus a promising animal model for HCV infections in humans. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology.


PubMed | Ghent University and Veterinary Practice
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of comparative pathology | Year: 2016

A 7-year-old warmblood mare showed sudden onset of mild intermittent haemoptysis. Clinical examination revealed no significant abnormalities. Haematological examination showed mild anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and neutrophilia. Coagulation tests were normal. Endoscopic examination revealed unilateral pulmonary haemorrhage with blood clots in the bronchi and trachea. Treatment with antibiotics was started and the horse was given stable rest. Two weeks later, the horse was found dead with blood and frothy sputum leaking from the nostrils. Post-mortem examination revealed a large thoracic aortic aneurysm communicating with a pseudoaneurysm that had formed a fistula into a right bronchial branch. Microscopical examination of the aneurysm showed extensive medial fibrosis with prominent degeneration, fragmentation and mineralization of the elastic fibres and deposition of mucoid material in the tunica media. The pseudoaneurysm was lined by collagen bundles admixed with fibroblasts and a small amount of adipose tissue. Aortobronchial fistula is a rare condition in man that is usually associated with primary aortic pathology, most often aneurysms. To the authors knowledge this is the first case of a fatal aortobronchial fistula in a horse or any other animal species.


Sassnau R.,Veterinary Practice | Czajka C.,Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine | Kronefeld M.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Werner D.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

After the repeated demonstration of Dirofilaria repens infections in German dogs, D. repens and Dirofilaria immitis DNA was detected in mosquitoes trapped in 2011, 2012 and 2013 in northeastern and southwestern Germany within the framework of culicid monitoring projects. As temperature is the most important factor dictating the extrinsic development of dirofilarial larvae in the potential vector, data of the German Weather Service (DWD) were analysed for the regions where the positive mosquitoes had been collected. Based on the mean daily temperatures recorded by weather stations most closely to the collection sites of the mosquitoes, it can be concluded that the mosquitoes were trapped in time periods that allowed for the completion of the developmental cycle of the worms in the mosquitoes and a subsequent transmission to a vertebrate host. The results of this study confirm the principal climatic suitability of certain German regions for the establishment of natural dirofilarial transmission cycles. Moreover, the theoretical climatic considerations, together with findings of D. repens infections in German dogs and mosquitoes, strongly suggest that the continuing spread of at least D. repens from its traditional habitats in the Mediterranean has reached southwestern and northeastern Germany. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.


PubMed | Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety and Veterinary practice
Type: | Journal: BMC veterinary research | Year: 2015

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a syndrome that is characterized by rapidly spreading watery diarrhea affecting pigs of all ages, but with major effects on suckling piglets. The disease, as well as the causative Alphacoronavirus, the Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), was first described in Europe in the 1970s and since then has spread over many Asian and American countries, where it recently led to devastating effects on swine health and pork industry. While the disease was seldom reported in Europe within the last few decades, a few recent reports re-emergence of PED in German pig farms. The hitherto isolated German strain seems to be closely related to a low pathogenic PEDV variant from the USA. This case report describes the first detection of PEDV in Austria.Reduced feed uptake and occasional diarrhea were observed in December 2014 in a group of fattening pigs, kept on an Austrian swine farm. The concerned pigs had been recently purchased from Germany. Within a few weeks, diarrhea became apparent also in pigs of Austrian origin, which were kept in a different stable on the same farm. Gastrointestinal symptoms among fattening pigs were generally mild, quickly resolving and did not lead to death. PEDV RNA was identified by RT-qPCR in pooled feces and serum and PEDV antibodies were detectable in serum in both groups of pigs. Phylogenetic analysis of the nearly complete PEDV spike gene shows that the Austrian PEDV strain is highly similar to other strains involved in recent outbreaks in Western and Central Europe.This is the first report demonstrating the presence of PEDV in Austria. The virus was probably introduced by purchasing piglets from a German source, which underlines the significance of trans-boundary animal trade for the distribution of highly contagious diseases, such as PED.


PubMed | University of California at San Diego, University of Georgia and Veterinary practice
Type: | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to determine the level and duration of IgG antibodies induced against killed whole Tritrichomonas foetus and T foetus-purified surface antigen (TF1.17) in serum, vaginal, and uterine secretions after systemic immunization of beef cows with a vaccine containing killed whole T foetus. Twenty nonpregnant beef cows were randomly assigned to vaccine or control groups as follows: Vaccine (n = 10): cows received 2mL of a commercial vaccine containing killed whole T foetus subcutaneously and a 2-mL booster 2weeks later. Control (n = 10): cows received 2 mL of sterile saline on the same schedule. Vaginal secretions and blood samples were collected on Days 0, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50, 60, 75, 89, 110, 146, and 182 relative to day of primary vaccination. Uterine flush fluid was collected on Days 0, 15, 29, and 43 after the day of primary vaccination. Samples were assayed for IgG antibodies to the killed whole T foetus and surface antigen TF1.17 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum whole T foetus-specific IgG levels were significantly increased (between Days 15 and 182) following vaccination with T foetus or with saline. No differences between vaccinates and controls in uterine responses to whole-cell antigen were detected. Serum anti-TF1.17 IgG responses to vaccination were significantly higher than Day 0 throughout the immunization period (P<0.001) and were higher than responses in control animals on each day post immunization through Day 146 (P<0.001). A significant rise in TF1.17-specific IgG levels was observed in vaginal and uterine fluids from Day 15 post vaccination compared to the Day 0 levels. These levels remained significantly elevated in vaginal and uterine fluids through Days 75 (P<0.05) and 43 (P<0.001) after primary vaccination, respectively. Antibody levels in serum, vaginal, and uterine secretions against TF1.17 remained low in the control group throughout the study. In conclusion, vaccination of beef cows with a commercial vaccine containing T foetus induced significant increase in the levels of IgG to the T foetus TF1.17 surface antigen in serum, vaginal secretions, and uterine fluid, which remained elevated through Days 43, 75, and 182 in uterine fluids, vaginal secretions, and serum, respectively. Since purified TF1.17 antigen has been shown to protect against experimental T foetus infection in heifers, the vaccine-induced TF1.17-specific IgG response is likely to be important in the prevention of trichomoniasis in beef cattle.


PubMed | Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Life Sciences in Poznań and Veterinary Practice
Type: | Journal: Molecular cytogenetics | Year: 2015

SRY-positive XX testicular disorder of sex development (DSD) caused by X;Y translocations was not yet reported in domestic animals. In humans it is rarely diagnosed and a majority of clinical features resemble those which are typical for Klinefelter syndrome (KS). Here we describe the first case of SRY-positive XX DSD in a tortoiseshell cat with a rudimentary penis and a lack of scrotum.Molecular analysis showed the presence of two Y-linked genes (SRY and ZFY) and a normal sequence of the SRY gene. Application of classical cytogenetic techniques revealed two X chromosomes (38,XX), but further FISH studies with the use of the whole X chromosome painting probe and BAC probes specific to the Yp chromosome facilitated identification of Xp;Yp translocation. The SRY gene was localised at a distal position of Xp. The karyotype of the studied case was described as: 38,XX.ish der(X)t(X;Y)(p22;p12)(SRY+). Moreover, the X inactivation status assessed by a sequential R-banding and FISH with the SRY-specific probe showed a random inactivation of the derivative X(SRY) chromosome.Our study showed that among DSD tortoiseshell cats, apart from XXY trisomy and XX/XY chimerism, also SRY-positive XX cases may occur. It is hypothesized that the extremely rare occurrence of this abnormality in domestic animals, when compared with humans, may be associated with a different organisation of the Yp arm in these species.

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