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De Rosa F.G.,University of Turin | Stella M.L.,University of Turin | Astegiano S.,Veterinary Medical Research Institute for Piemonte | Corcione S.,University of Turin | And 3 more authors.
Infezioni in Medicina | Year: 2015

Seventeen days after a traumatic open fracture, a Clostridium botulinum wound infection was diagnosed, with self-limiting symptoms. This is the first report of wound botulism in Italy and the authors discuss the possible role of aerosolized contamination of the wound prior to hospital admission. © 2015, EDIMES Edizioni Medico Scientifiche. All rights Reserved. Source

Sidoti F.,University of Turin | Rizzo F.,Veterinary Medical Research Institute for Piemonte | Costa C.,University of Turin | Astegiano S.,University of Turin | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Rapid detection and subtyping of H5 and H7 subtypes influenza A viruses are important for disease control in poultry and potential transmission to humans. Currently, virus isolation and subsequent HA and NA subtyping constitute the standard for avian influenza viruses detection and subtype identification. These methods are highly accurate and sensitive but are also laborious and time-consuming. Reverse transcription PCR and real time reverse transcription PCR assays, suitable tests for rapid detection, have previously been used for the specific diagnosis of H5 and H7 viruses, however, at present, no primer and probe sets are available for the identification of all H5 and H7 strains. Herein, we have developed specific and sensitive real time reverse transcription PCR assays for the detection of type A influenza virus and for subtyping of avian H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtypes and we have also compared these molecular assays with viral isolation in terms of sensitivity. Our results demonstrate that the real time reverse transcription PCR assays are more sensitive, specific, less expensive compared to viral isolation. In conclusion, molecular assays could represent an useful tool for rapid detection and screening of H5 and H7 isolates during influenza A virus outbreaks alternatively to viral isolation. © 2009 Humana Press. Source

Vizio C.,Regione Bocca 16 A | Bozzetta E.,Veterinary Medical Research Institute for Piemonte | Pezzolato M.,Veterinary Medical Research Institute for Piemonte | Meistro S.,Veterinary Medical Research Institute for Piemonte | And 8 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Asbestos has been banned in many countries, including Italy. However, sources of exposure may still exist, due to asbestos in-situ or past disposal of asbestos-containing waste. In an urban area with past high environmental exposure, like Casale Monferrato, the lung fiber burden in sentinel animals may be useful to identify such sources. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of its determination in wild rats, a suitable sentinel species never used before for environmental lung asbestos fiber burden studies.Within the framework of pest control campaigns, 11 adult animals from 3 sites in the urban area of Casale Monferrato and 3 control rats from a different, unexposed town were captured. Further, 3 positive and 3 negative control lung samples were obtained from laboratories involved in breeding programs and conducting experimental studies on rats. Tissue fiber concentration was measured by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry.Asbestos (chrysotile and crocidolite) was identified in the lungs from rats from Casale Monferrato, but not in control rats and in negative control lung samples. Asbestos grunerite at high concentration was found in positive control lung samples.Measurement of the lung fiber burden in wild rats has proved feasible: it was possible not only to detect, but also to characterize asbestos fibers both qualitatively and quantitatively. The pilot study provides the rationale for using wild rats as sentinels of the soil contamination level in Casale Monferrato, to identify areas with the possible presence of previously unrecognized asbestos sources. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Dabbou S.,University of Turin | Dabbou S.,Higher Institute of Biotechnology of Monastir | Rotolo L.,University of Turin | Kovitvadhi A.,University of Turin | And 10 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2016

Echinacea pallida (EPAL), also known as pale purple coneflower, is a herbaceous flowering plant with immune-enhancement and antioxidative properties. The effect of EPAL on the reproductive performance, serum biochemistry and haematological parameters of rabbit does has been studied here. A total of 100, 21-week-old Grimaud rabbit does, were randomly assigned to two groups. One group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 3 g EPAL/kg diet (Echinacea group, E), while the other was fed the basal diet without the supplementation (control group, C). The reproductive performance of the does was not affected by the treatment (P>0.05). The haematological parameters of pregnant rabbits showed that there was no interaction between gestation day and treatment. The EPAL supplementation induced a reduction (−47.3%) in the basophil cell rate (0.55% and 0.29%, for the control and treatment groups, respectively; P=0.049). The gestation day significantly affected most of the haematological parameters (P<0.05). The white blood cell counts declined progressively after day 14. The mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width, mean platelet volume and eosinophils increased steadily throughout the study, and reached a maximum value on day 28. The red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and neutrophils increased slightly up to day 14, and then subsequently decreased progressively until day 28. The lymphocytes and platelet distribution width decreased until day 14, and then increased to a maximum value on day 28. No significant effect of gestation day or treatment was observed on the blood serum chemistry. As far as the immune parameters are concerned, no significant differences were observed between groups, while a significant effect of gestation day was observed for lysozymes (6.02 v. 7.99 v. 1.91; for 0, 14 and 28 days, respectively; P=0.014). In conclusion, a lack of effect of EPAL has been observed. In fact, no impacts of EPAL have been observed on the reproductive or haematological parameters of the does. The effects of dietary supplementation with EPAL on the performances, bacterial community, blood parameters and immunity in growing rabbits are reported in the second part of this study. © The Animal Consortium 2016 Source

Kovitvadhi A.,University of Turin | Gai F.,National Research Council Italy | Dabbou S.,University of Turin | Ferrocino I.,University of Turin | And 13 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2016

Echinacea pallida (EPAL), a herbaceous flowering plant with immunomodulatory properties, has been chosen to determine the pre- and post-supplementary effects on the growth performances, bacterial community, blood parameters and immunity of growing rabbits. The same Grimaud does (14-week-old) from the studied in the first part of this study were randomly divided into two groups (n=50/group). The first group was fed a basal diet without supplementation (Control group, C) while the another group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 3 g EPAL/kg diet (Echinacea group, E). From the second parturition, 80 weaned kits (40 from the C does and 40 from the E does) were randomly assigned to four groups of 20 animals each and were fed a growing commercial diet supplemented with or without a 3 g EPAL/kg diet: the CC group (rabbits from the C does fed the control diet), CE group (rabbits from the C does fed the supplemented diet), EC (rabbits from the E does fed the control diet) and EE group (rabbits from the E does fed the supplemented diet). The dietary EPAL treatment did not affect the growth performance. Ten fattening rabbits from each group were selected to evaluate the bacterial community and blood parameters, while the remaining rabbits (n=10/group) were used to study phagocytosis and the humoral immune response. The variability was evaluated from hard faeces at 35, 49 and 89 days, and the caecal content at 89 days. The variability of the bacterial community of the EE group was higher than that of the other groups. The phagocytic activity was higher in the CE and EE groups than in the CC and EC ones (30.9 and 29.7 v. 21.2 and 21.8%; P<0.05), whereas no statistically significant difference was observed for the blood parameters or humoral immune response against vaccination (rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus) at 95 days old which the serum was collected at 88, 102, 109, 116 and 123 days old. In conclusion, no impact of EPAL dietary supplementation has been observed on the growth performances, bacterial community, blood parameters or humoral immune responses in growing rabbits, except for an increase in phagocytic activities. © The Animal Consortium 2016 Source

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