Van Soom A.,Ghent University |
Wrathall A.E.,Veterinary Laboratory Agency Weybridge |
Herrler A.,Maastricht University |
Nauwynck H.J.,Ghent University
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2010
Although the transfer of embryos is much less likely to result in disease transmission than the transport of live animals, the sanitary risks associated with embryo transfer continue to be the subject of both scientific investigations and adaptations of national and international legislation. Therefore, the implications are important for veterinary practitioners and livestock breeders. In vivo-derived and in vitro-produced embryos are widely used in cattle and embryos from other species, such as sheep, goats, pigs and horses, are also currently being transferred in fairly significant numbers. Bearing in mind the wide variety of embryos of different species and the correspondingly large number of viruses that are of concern, it is expedient at this time to look again at the importance of the zona pellucida (ZP) as a barrier against viruses and at the susceptibility or otherwise of embryonic cells to viral infection if ever they are exposed. For embryos with an intact ZP, viral infection of the embryo is unlikely to occur. However, the virus may stick to the ZP and, in this case, International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) washing procedures in combination with trypsin treatment are mandatory. A caveat is the fact that currently more and more types of embryos are becoming available for transfer and scientific data cannot be extrapolated from one species to another. These topics are discussed in the present review. © 2010 IETS.
Catania S.,Viale dellUniversit |
Bilato D.,Viale dellUniversit |
Gobbo F.,Viale dellUniversit |
Granato A.,Viale dellUniversit |
And 3 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2010
Eggshell abnormalities were seen in the apex of eggs in two of three flocks of multi-age, Hy-Line layer chickens housed on a farm in Northern Italy. Approximately 1.3 to 1.8 of eggs in one flock were affected, amounting to 300400 eggs per day; the abnormalities resulted in a great deal of breakage and spoilage of healthy eggs. The mean weight of eggs was also reduced. Egg abnormalities in a second flock were less severe. Mycoplasma synoviae was detected in birds from both of the affected flocks by serologic, cultural, and molecular techniques, but not in a third, adjacent flock where no eggshell abnormalities were seen. Treatment with tylosin, administered in the drinking water for 5 days, resulted in an immediate improvement of eggshell quality and egg weight. There was no evidence of infectious bronchitis virus in the flocks. © 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.
Patterson R.,Lane College |
Nerren J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Nerren J.,Texas A&M University |
Kogut M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
And 5 more authors.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2012
Yeast species such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae are known to be potent activators of the immune system. S. cerevisiae activates the innate immune system by engaging pattern recognition receptors such as toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) and dectin-1. In the current project, we express the immunogenic envelope protein E2 of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) on the surface of S. cerevisiae. After successful expression, components of the innate and adaptive immune response induced by the recombinant S. cerevisiae in vitro were analysed to determine if expression in yeast enhances the immunogenicity of the viral protein. Recombinant S. cerevisiae stimulated production of the chemokine CXCL-8 in primary bovine macrophages, but did no stimulate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the same cells. Additionally, bovine macrophages primed with S. cerevisiae expressing viral envelope proteins had a greater capacity for stimulating proliferation of CD4+ T-cells from BVDV-free animals compared to macrophages primed with envelope protein alone or S. cerevisiae without envelope protein expression. Heat inactivation of recombinant S. cerevisiae increased ROS production and capacity to stimulate CD4+ T-cells in macrophages but did not alter CXCL-8 release compared to the live counter-part. Additionally, heat-inactivation of recombinant S. cerevisiae induced less INFγ and IL-4 but equal amounts of IL-10 compared to live yeast T-cell cultures. Our studies demonstrate a use for S. cerevisiae as a vehicle for transporting BVDV vaccine antigen to antigen-presenting cell in order to elicit cell-mediated immunity even in naïve animals. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.