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Addlestone, United Kingdom

Heller J.,University of Glasgow | Heller J.,Charles University | Kelly L.,University of Strathclyde | Kelly L.,Veterinary Laboratory Agency | And 2 more authors.
Risk Analysis

This article presents a qualitative risk assessment of the acquisition of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pet dogs, representing an important first step in the exploration of risk of bidirectional MRSA transfer between dogs and humans. A conceptual model of the seven potential pathways for MRSA acquisition in a dog in any given 24-hour period was developed and the data available to populate that model were considered qualitatively. Humans were found to represent the most important source of MRSA for dogs in both community and veterinary hospital settings. The environment was found to be secondary to humans in terms of importance and other dogs less still. This study highlights some important methodological limitations of a technique that is heavily relied upon for qualitative risk assessments and applies a novel process, the use of relative risk ranking, to enable the generation of a defensible output using a matrix combination approach. Given the limitations of the prescribed methods as applied to the problem under consideration, further validation, or repudiation, of the findings contained herein is called for using a subsequent quantitative assessment. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis. Source

Gutka H.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Rukseree K.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Rukseree K.,National Science and Technology Development Agency | Wheeler P.R.,Veterinary Laboratory Agency | And 2 more authors.
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

The glpX gene (Rv1099c) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase II (FBPase II; EC; a key gluconeogenic enzyme. Mtb possesses glpX homologue as the major known FBPase. This study explored the expression, purification and enzymatic characterization of functionally active FBPase II from Mtb. The glpX gene was cloned, expressed and purified using a two step purification strategy including affinity and size exclusion chromatography. The specific activity of Mtb FBPase II is 1.3 U/mg. The enzyme is oligomeric, followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with an apparent km=44 μM. Enzyme activity is dependent on bivalent metal ions and is inhibited by lithium and inorganic phosphate. The pH optimum and thermostability of the enzyme have been determined. The robust expression, purification and assay protocols ensure sufficient production of this protein for structural biology and screening of inhibitors against this enzyme. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. Source

Thomas R.,UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory | Davies C.,UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory | Nunez A.,Veterinary Laboratory Agency | Hibbs S.,UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Medical Microbiology

Deposition of Bacillus anthracis endospores within either the lungs or nasal passages of A/J mice after aerosol exposure was influenced by different particle sized aerosols and resulted in different infection kinetics. The infection resulting from the inhalation of endospores within a 12 mm particle aerosol was prolonged compared to that from a 1 mm particle aerosol with a mean time-to-death of 161±16.1 h and 101.6±10.4 h, respectively. Inhalation of endospores within 1 mm or 12 mm particle aerosols resulted in a median lethal dose of 2432 and 7656 c.f.u., respectively. Initial involvement of the upper respiratory tract lymph nodes was observed in 75-83% of mice exposed to either the 1 mm or 12 μm particle inhalational infections. Lung deposition was significantly greater after inhalation of the 1 μm particle aerosol with pronounced involvement of the mediastinal lymph node. Gastrointestinal involvement was observed only in mice exposed to 12 μm particle aerosols where bacteriological and histopathological analysis indicated primary gastritis (17 %), activation of the Peyer's patches (72 %) and colonization and necrosis of the mesenteric lymph nodes (67 %). Terminal disease was characterized by bacteraemia in both inhalational infections with preferential dissemination to spleen, liver, kidneys and thymus. Immunization with 1 mg recombinant protective antigen vaccine was equally efficacious against B. anthracis infections arising from the inhalation of 1 and 12 mm particle aerosols, providing 73-80% survival under a suboptimum immunization schedule. © 2010 Crown copyright Dstl. Source

D'Angelo A.R.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dellAbruzzo E del Molise | di Provvido A.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dellAbruzzo E del Molise | di Francesco G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dellAbruzzo E del Molise | Sacchini F.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dellAbruzzo E del Molise | And 3 more authors.
Veterinaria Italiana

Ten goats were experimentally infected with a Mycoplasma identified by biomolecular methods as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, strain Irbid which was isolated from goats in an outbreak of contagious agalactia in north Jordan and defined as 'unusual', due to its serological characteristics. Two groups of goats infected by the endotracheal route and by aerosol, respectively, were placed in contact with a third group of naive animals. Six weeks after infection, some animals from both the infected and contact groups presented fever and nasal discharge, followed by severe respiratory signs and polyarthritis. Organs were taken from animals that died during the trial or those that were sacrificed at the end of the trial. The results of microbiological isolation and immunohistochemical tests conducted on the organs were compared after a description of the clinical picture and anatomopathological and histopathological signs. © IZS A&M 2010. Source

Wibbelt G.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research | Kurth A.,Robert Koch Institute | Hellmann D.,University of Oldenburg | Weishaar M.,Bat Conservation Working Group | And 10 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases

White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus. Source

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